WGET(1)                                                       GNU Wget                                                      WGET(1)

       Wget - The non-interactive network downloader.

       wget [option]... [URL]...

       GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web.  It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols,
       as well as retrieval through HTTP proxies.

       Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background, while the user is not logged on.  This allows you to
       start a retrieval and disconnect from the system, letting Wget finish the work.  By contrast, most of the Web browsers
       require constant user's presence, which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.

       Wget can follow links in HTML, XHTML, and CSS pages, to create local versions of remote web sites, fully recreating the
       directory structure of the original site.  This is sometimes referred to as "recursive downloading."  While doing that, Wget
       respects the Robot Exclusion Standard (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert the links in downloaded files to
       point at the local files, for offline viewing.

       Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network connections; if a download fails due to a network
       problem, it will keep retrying until the whole file has been retrieved.  If the server supports regetting, it will instruct
       the server to continue the download from where it left off.

   Option Syntax
       Since Wget uses GNU getopt to process command-line arguments, every option has a long form along with the short one.  Long
       options are more convenient to remember, but take time to type.  You may freely mix different option styles, or specify
       options after the command-line arguments.  Thus you may write:

               wget -r --tries=10 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ -o log

       The space between the option accepting an argument and the argument may be omitted.  Instead of -o log you can write -olog.

       You may put several options that do not require arguments together, like:

               wget -drc <URL>

       This is completely equivalent to:

               wget -d -r -c <URL>

       Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you may terminate them with --.  So the following will try to
       download URL -x, reporting failure to log:

               wget -o log -- -x

       The options that accept comma-separated lists all respect the convention that specifying an empty list clears its value.
       This can be useful to clear the .wgetrc settings.  For instance, if your .wgetrc sets "exclude_directories" to /cgi-bin, the
       following example will first reset it, and then set it to exclude /~nobody and /~somebody.  You can also clear the lists in

               wget -X "" -X /~nobody,/~somebody

       Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean options, so named because their state can be captured with a yes-or-no
       ("boolean") variable.  For example, --follow-ftp tells Wget to follow FTP links from HTML files and, on the other hand,
       --no-glob tells it not to perform file globbing on FTP URLs.  A boolean option is either affirmative or negative (beginning
       with --no).  All such options share several properties.

       Unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that the default behavior is the opposite of what the option accomplishes.  For
       example, the documented existence of --follow-ftp assumes that the default is to not follow FTP links from HTML pages.

       Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the --no- to the option name; negative options can be negated by omitting
       the --no- prefix.  This might seem superfluous---if the default for an affirmative option is to not do something, then why
       provide a way to explicitly turn it off?  But the startup file may in fact change the default.  For instance, using
       "follow_ftp = on" in .wgetrc makes Wget follow FTP links by default, and using --no-follow-ftp is the only way to restore
       the factory default from the command line.

   Basic Startup Options
           Display the version of Wget.

           Print a help message describing all of Wget's command-line options.

           Go to background immediately after startup.  If no output file is specified via the -o, output is redirected to wget-

       -e command
       --execute command
           Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A command thus invoked will be executed after the commands in .wgetrc,
           thus taking precedence over them.  If you need to specify more than one wgetrc command, use multiple instances of -e.

   Logging and Input File Options
       -o logfile
           Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally reported to standard error.

       -a logfile
           Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it appends to logfile instead of overwriting the old log file.  If
           logfile does not exist, a new file is created.

           Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to the developers of Wget if it does not work properly.
           Your system administrator may have chosen to compile Wget without debug support, in which case -d will not work.  Please
           note that compiling with debug support is always safe---Wget compiled with the debug support will not print any debug
           info unless requested with -d.

           Turn off Wget's output.

           Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default output is verbose.

           Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use -q for that), which means that error messages and basic information
           still get printed.

           Output bandwidth as type.  The only accepted value is bits.

       -i file
           Read URLs from a local or external file.  If - is specified as file, URLs are read from the standard input.  (Use ./- to
           read from a file literally named -.)

           If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the command line.  If there are URLs both on the command line and
           in an input file, those on the command lines will be the first ones to be retrieved.  If --force-html is not specified,
           then file should consist of a series of URLs, one per line.

           However, if you specify --force-html, the document will be regarded as html.  In that case you may have problems with
           relative links, which you can solve either by adding "<base href="url">" to the documents or by specifying --base=url on
           the command line.

           If the file is an external one, the document will be automatically treated as html if the Content-Type matches
           text/html.  Furthermore, the file's location will be implicitly used as base href if none was specified.

           Downloads files covered in local Metalink file. Metalink version 3 and 4 are supported.

           Keeps downloaded Metalink's files with a bad hash. It appends .badhash to the name of Metalink's files which have a
           checksum mismatch, except without overwriting existing files.

           Issues HTTP HEAD request instead of GET and extracts Metalink metadata from response headers. Then it switches to
           Metalink download.  If no valid Metalink metadata is found, it falls back to ordinary HTTP download.  Enables Content-
           Type: application/metalink4+xml files download/processing.

           Set the Metalink application/metalink4+xml metaurl ordinal NUMBER. From 1 to the total number of
           "application/metalink4+xml" available.  Specify 0 or inf to choose the first good one.  Metaurls, such as those from a
           --metalink-over-http, may have been sorted by priority key's value; keep this in mind to choose the right NUMBER.

           Set preferred location for Metalink resources. This has effect if multiple resources with same priority are available.

           Enable use of file system's extended attributes to save the original URL and the Referer HTTP header value if used.

           Be aware that the URL might contain private information like access tokens or credentials.

           When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML file.  This enables you to retrieve relative links
           from existing HTML files on your local disk, by adding "<base href="url">" to HTML, or using the --base command-line

       -B URL
           Resolves relative links using URL as the point of reference, when reading links from an HTML file specified via the
           -i/--input-file option (together with --force-html, or when the input file was fetched remotely from a server describing
           it as HTML). This is equivalent to the presence of a "BASE" tag in the HTML input file, with URL as the value for the
           "href" attribute.

           For instance, if you specify http://foo/bar/a.html for URL, and Wget reads ../baz/b.html from the input file, it would
           be resolved to http://foo/baz/b.html.

           Specify the location of a startup file you wish to use instead of the default one(s). Use --no-config to disable reading
           of config files.  If both --config and --no-config are given, --no-config is ignored.

           Logs all URL rejections to logfile as comma separated values.  The values include the reason of rejection, the URL and
           the parent URL it was found in.

   Download Options
           When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to ADDRESS on the local machine.  ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or
           IP address.  This option can be useful if your machine is bound to multiple IPs.

           [libcares only] This address overrides the route for DNS requests. If you ever need to circumvent the standard settings
           from /etc/resolv.conf, this option together with --dns-servers is your friend.  ADDRESS must be specified either as IPv4
           or IPv6 address.  Wget needs to be built with libcares for this option to be available.

           [libcares only] The given address(es) override the standard nameserver addresses,  e.g. as configured in
           /etc/resolv.conf.  ADDRESSES may be specified either as IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, comma-separated.  Wget needs to be built
           with libcares for this option to be available.

       -t number
           Set number of tries to number. Specify 0 or inf for infinite retrying.  The default is to retry 20 times, with the
           exception of fatal errors like "connection refused" or "not found" (404), which are not retried.

       -O file
           The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but all will be concatenated together and written to file.
           If - is used as file, documents will be printed to standard output, disabling link conversion.  (Use ./- to print to a
           file literally named -.)

           Use of -O is not intended to mean simply "use the name file instead of the one in the URL;" rather, it is analogous to
           shell redirection: wget -O file http://foo is intended to work like wget -O - http://foo > file; file will be truncated
           immediately, and all downloaded content will be written there.

           For this reason, -N (for timestamp-checking) is not supported in combination with -O: since file is always newly
           created, it will always have a very new timestamp. A warning will be issued if this combination is used.

           Similarly, using -r or -p with -O may not work as you expect: Wget won't just download the first file to file and then
           download the rest to their normal names: all downloaded content will be placed in file. This was disabled in version
           1.11, but has been reinstated (with a warning) in 1.11.2, as there are some cases where this behavior can actually have
           some use.

           A combination with -nc is only accepted if the given output file does not exist.

           Note that a combination with -k is only permitted when downloading a single document, as in that case it will just
           convert all relative URIs to external ones; -k makes no sense for multiple URIs when they're all being downloaded to a
           single file; -k can be used only when the output is a regular file.

           If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory, Wget's behavior depends on a few options, including -nc.
           In certain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten, upon repeated download.  In other cases it will be

           When running Wget without -N, -nc, -r, or -p, downloading the same file in the same directory will result in the
           original copy of file being preserved and the second copy being named file.1.  If that file is downloaded yet again, the
           third copy will be named file.2, and so on.  (This is also the behavior with -nd, even if -r or -p are in effect.)  When
           -nc is specified, this behavior is suppressed, and Wget will refuse to download newer copies of file.  Therefore,
           ""no-clobber"" is actually a misnomer in this mode---it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the numeric suffixes were
           already preventing clobbering), but rather the multiple version saving that's prevented.

           When running Wget with -r or -p, but without -N, -nd, or -nc, re-downloading a file will result in the new copy simply
           overwriting the old.  Adding -nc will prevent this behavior, instead causing the original version to be preserved and
           any newer copies on the server to be ignored.

           When running Wget with -N, with or without -r or -p, the decision as to whether or not to download a newer copy of a
           file depends on the local and remote timestamp and size of the file.  -nc may not be specified at the same time as -N.

           A combination with -O/--output-document is only accepted if the given output file does not exist.

           Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or .htm will be loaded from the local disk and parsed as
           if they had been retrieved from the Web.

           Before (over)writing a file, back up an existing file by adding a .1 suffix (_1 on VMS) to the file name.  Such backup
           files are rotated to .2, .3, and so on, up to backups (and lost beyond that).

           Do not try to obtain credentials from .netrc file. By default .netrc file is searched for credentials in case none have
           been passed on command line and authentication is required.

           Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful when you want to finish up a download started by a
           previous instance of Wget, or by another program.  For instance:

                   wget -c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls-lR.Z

           If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current directory, Wget will assume that it is the first portion of the remote
           file, and will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset equal to the length of the local file.

           Note that you don't need to specify this option if you just want the current invocation of Wget to retry downloading a
           file should the connection be lost midway through.  This is the default behavior.  -c only affects resumption of
           downloads started prior to this invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting around.

           Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote file to ls-lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z file

           If you use -c on a non-empty file, and the server does not support continued downloading, Wget will restart the download
           from scratch and overwrite the existing file entirely.

           Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which is of equal size as the one on the server, Wget will refuse to
           download the file and print an explanatory message.  The same happens when the file is smaller on the server than
           locally (presumably because it was changed on the server since your last download attempt)---because "continuing" is not
           meaningful, no download occurs.

           On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that's bigger on the server than locally will be considered an
           incomplete download and only "(length(remote) - length(local))" bytes will be downloaded and tacked onto the end of the
           local file.  This behavior can be desirable in certain cases---for instance, you can use wget -c to download just the
           new portion that's been appended to a data collection or log file.

           However, if the file is bigger on the server because it's been changed, as opposed to just appended to, you'll end up
           with a garbled file.  Wget has no way of verifying that the local file is really a valid prefix of the remote file.  You
           need to be especially careful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r, since every file will be considered as an
           "incomplete download" candidate.

           Another instance where you'll get a garbled file if you try to use -c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that inserts a
           "transfer interrupted" string into the local file.  In the future a "rollback" option may be added to deal with this

           Note that -c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP servers that support the "Range" header.

           Start downloading at zero-based position OFFSET.  Offset may be expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the `k' suffix, or
           megabytes with the `m' suffix, etc.

           --start-pos has higher precedence over --continue.  When --start-pos and --continue are both specified, wget will emit a
           warning then proceed as if --continue was absent.

           Server support for continued download is required, otherwise --start-pos cannot help.  See -c for details.

           Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use.  Legal indicators are "dot" and "bar".

           The "bar" indicator is used by default.  It draws an ASCII progress bar graphics (a.k.a "thermometer" display)
           indicating the status of retrieval.  If the output is not a TTY, the "dot" bar will be used by default.

           Use --progress=dot to switch to the "dot" display.  It traces the retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot
           representing a fixed amount of downloaded data.

           The progress type can also take one or more parameters.  The parameters vary based on the type selected.  Parameters to
           type are passed by appending them to the type sperated by a colon (:) like this: --progress=type:parameter1:parameter2.

           When using the dotted retrieval, you may set the style by specifying the type as dot:style.  Different styles assign
           different meaning to one dot.  With the "default" style each dot represents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50
           dots in a line.  The "binary" style has a more "computer"-like orientation---8K dots, 16-dots clusters and 48 dots per
           line (which makes for 384K lines).  The "mega" style is suitable for downloading large files---each dot represents 64K
           retrieved, there are eight dots in a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so each line contains 3M).  If "mega" is not
           enough then you can use the "giga" style---each dot represents 1M retrieved, there are eight dots in a cluster, and 32
           dots on each line (so each line contains 32M).

           With --progress=bar, there are currently two possible parameters, force and noscroll.

           When the output is not a TTY, the progress bar always falls back to "dot", even if --progress=bar was passed to Wget
           during invocation. This behaviour can be overridden and the "bar" output forced by using the "force" parameter as

           By default, the bar style progress bar scroll the name of the file from left to right for the file being downloaded if
           the filename exceeds the maximum length allotted for its display.  In certain cases, such as with --progress=bar:force,
           one may not want the scrolling filename in the progress bar.  By passing the "noscroll" parameter, Wget can be forced to
           display as much of the filename as possible without scrolling through it.

           Note that you can set the default style using the "progress" command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from
           the command line.  For example, to force the bar output without scrolling, use --progress=bar:force:noscroll.

           Force wget to display the progress bar in any verbosity.

           By default, wget only displays the progress bar in verbose mode.  One may however, want wget to display the progress bar
           on screen in conjunction with any other verbosity modes like --no-verbose or --quiet.  This is often a desired a
           property when invoking wget to download several small/large files.  In such a case, wget could simply be invoked with
           this parameter to get a much cleaner output on the screen.

           This option will also force the progress bar to be printed to stderr when used alongside the --output-file option.

           Turn on time-stamping.

           Do not send If-Modified-Since header in -N mode. Send preliminary HEAD request instead. This has only effect in -N mode.

           Don't set the local file's timestamp by the one on the server.

           By default, when a file is downloaded, its timestamps are set to match those from the remote file. This allows the use
           of --timestamping on subsequent invocations of wget. However, it is sometimes useful to base the local file's timestamp
           on when it was actually downloaded; for that purpose, the --no-use-server-timestamps option has been provided.

           Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP servers.

           When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider, which means that it will not download the pages, just
           check that they are there.  For example, you can use Wget to check your bookmarks:

                   wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

           This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the functionality of real web spiders.

       -T seconds
           Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is equivalent to specifying --dns-timeout, --connect-timeout, and
           --read-timeout, all at the same time.

           When interacting with the network, Wget can check for timeout and abort the operation if it takes too long.  This
           prevents anomalies like hanging reads and infinite connects.  The only timeout enabled by default is a 900-second read
           timeout.  Setting a timeout to 0 disables it altogether.  Unless you know what you are doing, it is best not to change
           the default timeout settings.

           All timeout-related options accept decimal values, as well as subsecond values.  For example, 0.1 seconds is a legal
           (though unwise) choice of timeout.  Subsecond timeouts are useful for checking server response times or for testing
           network latency.

           Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds.  DNS lookups that don't complete within the specified time will fail.  By
           default, there is no timeout on DNS lookups, other than that implemented by system libraries.

           Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP connections that take longer to establish will be aborted.  By default,
           there is no connect timeout, other than that implemented by system libraries.

           Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.  The "time" of this timeout refers to idle time: if, at any point
           in the download, no data is received for more than the specified number of seconds, reading fails and the download is
           restarted.  This option does not directly affect the duration of the entire download.

           Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the connection sooner than this option requires.  The default read
           timeout is 900 seconds.

           Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may be expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or
           megabytes with the m suffix.  For example, --limit-rate=20k will limit the retrieval rate to 20KB/s.  This is useful
           when, for whatever reason, you don't want Wget to consume the entire available bandwidth.

           This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually in conjunction with power suffixes; for example,
           --limit-rate=2.5k is a legal value.

           Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the appropriate amount of time after a network read that took less
           time than specified by the rate.  Eventually this strategy causes the TCP transfer to slow down to approximately the
           specified rate.  However, it may take some time for this balance to be achieved, so don't be surprised if limiting the
           rate doesn't work well with very small files.

       -w seconds
           Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use of this option is recommended, as it lightens the
           server load by making the requests less frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the time can be specified in minutes using the
           "m" suffix, in hours using "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.

           Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network or the destination host is down, so that Wget can wait
           long enough to reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before the retry.  The waiting interval specified by this
           function is influenced by "--random-wait", which see.

           If you don't want Wget to wait between every retrieval, but only between retries of failed downloads, you can use this
           option.  Wget will use linear backoff, waiting 1 second after the first failure on a given file, then waiting 2 seconds
           after the second failure on that file, up to the maximum number of seconds you specify.

           By default, Wget will assume a value of 10 seconds.

           Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval programs such as Wget by looking for statistically
           significant similarities in the time between requests. This option causes the time between requests to vary between 0.5
           and 1.5 * wait seconds, where wait was specified using the --wait option, in order to mask Wget's presence from such

           A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development on a popular consumer platform provided code to perform this
           analysis on the fly.  Its author suggested blocking at the class C address level to ensure automated retrieval programs
           were blocked despite changing DHCP-supplied addresses.

           The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-advised recommendation to block many unrelated users from a web site
           due to the actions of one.

           Don't use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy environment variable is defined.

       -Q quota
           Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can be specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k
           suffix), or megabytes (with m suffix).

           Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So if you specify wget -Q10k https://example.com/ls-lR.gz,
           all of the ls-lR.gz will be downloaded.  The same goes even when several URLs are specified on the command-line.  The
           quota is checked only at the end of each downloaded file, so it will never result in a partially downloaded file. Thus
           you may safely type wget -Q2m -i sites---download will be aborted after the file that exhausts the quota is completely

           Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.

           Turn off caching of DNS lookups.  Normally, Wget remembers the IP addresses it looked up from DNS so it doesn't have to
           repeatedly contact the DNS server for the same (typically small) set of hosts it retrieves from.  This cache exists in
           memory only; a new Wget run will contact DNS again.

           However, it has been reported that in some situations it is not desirable to cache host names, even for the duration of
           a short-running application like Wget.  With this option Wget issues a new DNS lookup (more precisely, a new call to
           "gethostbyname" or "getaddrinfo") each time it makes a new connection.  Please note that this option will not affect
           caching that might be performed by the resolving library or by an external caching layer, such as NSCD.

           If you don't understand exactly what this option does, you probably won't need it.

           Change which characters found in remote URLs must be escaped during generation of local filenames.  Characters that are
           restricted by this option are escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH, where HH is the hexadecimal number that corresponds to
           the restricted character. This option may also be used to force all alphabetical cases to be either lower- or uppercase.

           By default, Wget escapes the characters that are not valid or safe as part of file names on your operating system, as
           well as control characters that are typically unprintable.  This option is useful for changing these defaults, perhaps
           because you are downloading to a non-native partition, or because you want to disable escaping of the control
           characters, or you want to further restrict characters to only those in the ASCII range of values.

           The modes are a comma-separated set of text values. The acceptable values are unix, windows, nocontrol, ascii,
           lowercase, and uppercase. The values unix and windows are mutually exclusive (one will override the other), as are
           lowercase and uppercase. Those last are special cases, as they do not change the set of characters that would be
           escaped, but rather force local file paths to be converted either to lower- or uppercase.

           When "unix" is specified, Wget escapes the character / and the control characters in the ranges 0--31 and 128--159.
           This is the default on Unix-like operating systems.

           When "windows" is given, Wget escapes the characters \, |, /, :, ?, ", *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges
           0--31 and 128--159.  In addition to this, Wget in Windows mode uses + instead of : to separate host and port in local
           file names, and uses @ instead of ? to separate the query portion of the file name from the rest.  Therefore, a URL that
           would be saved as www.xemacs.org:4300/search.pl?input=blah in Unix mode would be saved as
           www.xemacs.org+4300/search.pl@input=blah in Windows mode.  This mode is the default on Windows.

           If you specify nocontrol, then the escaping of the control characters is also switched off. This option may make sense
           when you are downloading URLs whose names contain UTF-8 characters, on a system which can save and display filenames in
           UTF-8 (some possible byte values used in UTF-8 byte sequences fall in the range of values designated by Wget as

           The ascii mode is used to specify that any bytes whose values are outside the range of ASCII characters (that is,
           greater than 127) shall be escaped. This can be useful when saving filenames whose encoding does not match the one used

           Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  With --inet4-only or -4, Wget will only connect to IPv4 hosts, ignoring
           AAAA records in DNS, and refusing to connect to IPv6 addresses specified in URLs.  Conversely, with --inet6-only or -6,
           Wget will only connect to IPv6 hosts and ignore A records and IPv4 addresses.

           Neither options should be needed normally.  By default, an IPv6-aware Wget will use the address family specified by the
           host's DNS record.  If the DNS responds with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, Wget will try them in sequence until it finds
           one it can connect to.  (Also see "--prefer-family" option described below.)

           These options can be used to deliberately force the use of IPv4 or IPv6 address families on dual family systems, usually
           to aid debugging or to deal with broken network configuration.  Only one of --inet6-only and --inet4-only may be
           specified at the same time.  Neither option is available in Wget compiled without IPv6 support.

           When given a choice of several addresses, connect to the addresses with specified address family first.  The address
           order returned by DNS is used without change by default.

           This avoids spurious errors and connect attempts when accessing hosts that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses from
           IPv4 networks.  For example, www.kame.net resolves to 2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085 and to  When
           the preferred family is "IPv4", the IPv4 address is used first; when the preferred family is "IPv6", the IPv6 address is
           used first; if the specified value is "none", the address order returned by DNS is used without change.

           Unlike -4 and -6, this option doesn't inhibit access to any address family, it only changes the order in which the
           addresses are accessed.  Also note that the reordering performed by this option is stable---it doesn't affect order of
           addresses of the same family.  That is, the relative order of all IPv4 addresses and of all IPv6 addresses remains
           intact in all cases.

           Consider "connection refused" a transient error and try again.  Normally Wget gives up on a URL when it is unable to
           connect to the site because failure to connect is taken as a sign that the server is not running at all and that retries
           would not help.  This option is for mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend to disappear for short periods of

           Specify the username user and password password for both FTP and HTTP file retrieval.  These parameters can be
           overridden using the --ftp-user and --ftp-password options for FTP connections and the --http-user and --http-password
           options for HTTP connections.

           Prompt for a password for each connection established. Cannot be specified when --password is being used, because they
           are mutually exclusive.

           Prompt for a user and password using the specified command.  If no command is specified then the command in the
           environment variable WGET_ASKPASS is used.  If WGET_ASKPASS is not set then the command in the environment variable
           SSH_ASKPASS is used.

           You can set the default command for use-askpass in the .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the command line.

           Turn off internationalized URI (IRI) support. Use --iri to turn it on. IRI support is activated by default.

           You can set the default state of IRI support using the "iri" command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the
           command line.

           Force Wget to use encoding as the default system encoding. That affects how Wget converts URLs specified as arguments
           from locale to UTF-8 for IRI support.

           Wget use the function "nl_langinfo()" and then the "CHARSET" environment variable to get the locale. If it fails, ASCII
           is used.

           You can set the default local encoding using the "local_encoding" command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden
           from the command line.

           Force Wget to use encoding as the default remote server encoding.  That affects how Wget converts URIs found in files
           from remote encoding to UTF-8 during a recursive fetch. This options is only useful for IRI support, for the
           interpretation of non-ASCII characters.

           For HTTP, remote encoding can be found in HTTP "Content-Type" header and in HTML "Content-Type http-equiv" meta tag.

           You can set the default encoding using the "remoteencoding" command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the
           command line.

           Force Wget to unlink file instead of clobbering existing file. This option is useful for downloading to the directory
           with hardlinks.

   Directory Options
           Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving recursively.  With this option turned on, all files will get
           saved to the current directory, without clobbering (if a name shows up more than once, the filenames will get extensions

           The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories, even if one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g. wget
           -x http://fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt will save the downloaded file to fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt.

           Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default, invoking Wget with -r http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ will create a
           structure of directories beginning with fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This option disables such behavior.

           Use the protocol name as a directory component of local file names.  For example, with this option, wget -r http://host
           will save to http/host/... rather than just to host/....

           Ignore number directory components.  This is useful for getting a fine-grained control over the directory where
           recursive retrieval will be saved.

           Take, for example, the directory at ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  If you retrieve it with -r, it will be saved
           locally under ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  While the -nH option can remove the ftp.xemacs.org/ part, you are still stuck
           with pub/xemacs.  This is where --cut-dirs comes in handy; it makes Wget not "see" number remote directory components.
           Here are several examples of how --cut-dirs option works.

                   No options        -> ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
                   -nH               -> pub/xemacs/
                   -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
                   -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .

                   --cut-dirs=1      -> ftp.xemacs.org/xemacs/

           If you just want to get rid of the directory structure, this option is similar to a combination of -nd and -P.  However,
           unlike -nd, --cut-dirs does not lose with subdirectories---for instance, with -nH --cut-dirs=1, a beta/ subdirectory
           will be placed to xemacs/beta, as one would expect.

       -P prefix
           Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is the directory where all other files and subdirectories will be
           saved to, i.e. the top of the retrieval tree.  The default is . (the current directory).

   HTTP Options
           Use name as the default file name when it isn't known (i.e., for URLs that end in a slash), instead of index.html.

           If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is downloaded and the URL does not end with the regexp
           \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this option will cause the suffix .html to be appended to the local filename.  This is useful, for
           instance, when you're mirroring a remote site that uses .asp pages, but you want the mirrored pages to be viewable on
           your stock Apache server.  Another good use for this is when you're downloading CGI-generated materials.  A URL like
           http://site.com/article.cgi?25 will be saved as article.cgi?25.html.

           Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded every time you re-mirror a site, because Wget can't tell
           that the local X.html file corresponds to remote URL X (since it doesn't yet know that the URL produces output of type
           text/html or application/xhtml+xml.

           As of version 1.12, Wget will also ensure that any downloaded files of type text/css end in the suffix .css, and the
           option was renamed from --html-extension, to better reflect its new behavior. The old option name is still acceptable,
           but should now be considered deprecated.

           As of version 1.19.2, Wget will also ensure that any downloaded files with a "Content-Encoding" of br, compress, deflate
           or gzip end in the suffix .br, .Z, .zlib and .gz respectively.

           At some point in the future, this option may well be expanded to include suffixes for other types of content, including
           content types that are not parsed by Wget.

           Specify the username user and password password on an HTTP server.  According to the type of the challenge, Wget will
           encode them using either the "basic" (insecure), the "digest", or the Windows "NTLM" authentication scheme.

           Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.  Either method reveals your password to anyone who
           bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, use the --use-askpass or store them in .wgetrc or
           .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do
           not leave them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete them after Wget has started the download.

           Turn off the "keep-alive" feature for HTTP downloads.  Normally, Wget asks the server to keep the connection open so
           that, when you download more than one document from the same server, they get transferred over the same TCP connection.
           This saves time and at the same time reduces the load on the server.

           This option is useful when, for some reason, persistent (keep-alive) connections don't work for you, for example due to
           a server bug or due to the inability of server-side scripts to cope with the connections.

           Disable server-side cache.  In this case, Wget will send the remote server appropriate directives (Cache-Control: no-
           cache and Pragma: no-cache) to get the file from the remote service, rather than returning the cached version. This is
           especially useful for retrieving and flushing out-of-date documents on proxy servers.

           Caching is allowed by default.

           Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for maintaining server-side state.  The server sends the client a
           cookie using the "Set-Cookie" header, and the client responds with the same cookie upon further requests.  Since cookies
           allow the server owners to keep track of visitors and for sites to exchange this information, some consider them a
           breach of privacy.  The default is to use cookies; however, storing cookies is not on by default.

       --load-cookies file
           Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.  file is a textual file in the format originally used by
           Netscape's cookies.txt file.

           You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that require that you be logged in to access some or all of
           their content.  The login process typically works by the web server issuing an HTTP cookie upon receiving and verifying
           your credentials.  The cookie is then resent by the browser when accessing that part of the site, and so proves your

           Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same cookies your browser sends when communicating with the site.  This
           is achieved by --load-cookies---simply point Wget to the location of the cookies.txt file, and it will send the same
           cookies your browser would send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual cookie files in different

           "Netscape 4.x."
               The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.

           "Mozilla and Netscape 6.x."
               Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located somewhere under ~/.mozilla, in the directory of your
               profile.  The full path usually ends up looking somewhat like ~/.mozilla/default/some-weird-string/cookies.txt.

           "Internet Explorer."
               You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using the File menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.  This has been
               tested with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work with earlier versions.

           "Other browsers."
               If you are using a different browser to create your cookies, --load-cookies will only work if you can locate or
               produce a cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget expects.

           If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be an alternative.  If your browser supports a "cookie manager", you
           can use it to view the cookies used when accessing the site you're mirroring.  Write down the name and value of the
           cookie, and manually instruct Wget to send those cookies, bypassing the "official" cookie support:

                   wget --no-cookies --header "Cookie: <name>=<value>"

       --save-cookies file
           Save cookies to file before exiting.  This will not save cookies that have expired or that have no expiry time (so-
           called "session cookies"), but also see --keep-session-cookies.

           When specified, causes --save-cookies to also save session cookies.  Session cookies are normally not saved because they
           are meant to be kept in memory and forgotten when you exit the browser.  Saving them is useful on sites that require you
           to log in or to visit the home page before you can access some pages.  With this option, multiple Wget runs are
           considered a single browser session as far as the site is concerned.

           Since the cookie file format does not normally carry session cookies, Wget marks them with an expiry timestamp of 0.
           Wget's --load-cookies recognizes those as session cookies, but it might confuse other browsers.  Also note that cookies
           so loaded will be treated as other session cookies, which means that if you want --save-cookies to preserve them again,
           you must use --keep-session-cookies again.

           Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more precise) send out bogus "Content-Length" headers, which makes
           Wget go wild, as it thinks not all the document was retrieved.  You can spot this syndrome if Wget retries getting the
           same document again and again, each time claiming that the (otherwise normal) connection has closed on the very same

           With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length" header---as if it never existed.

           Send header-line along with the rest of the headers in each HTTP request.  The supplied header is sent as-is, which
           means it must contain name and value separated by colon, and must not contain newlines.

           You may define more than one additional header by specifying --header more than once.

                   wget --header='Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2' \
                        --header='Accept-Language: hr'        \

           Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear all previous user-defined headers.

           As of Wget 1.10, this option can be used to override headers otherwise generated automatically.  This example instructs
           Wget to connect to localhost, but to specify foo.bar in the "Host" header:

                   wget --header="Host: foo.bar" http://localhost/

           In versions of Wget prior to 1.10 such use of --header caused sending of duplicate headers.

           Choose the type of compression to be used.  Legal values are auto, gzip and none.

           If auto or gzip are specified, Wget asks the server to compress the file using the gzip compression format. If the
           server compresses the file and responds with the "Content-Encoding" header field set appropriately, the file will be
           decompressed automatically.

           If none is specified, wget will not ask the server to compress the file and will not decompress any server responses.
           This is the default.

           Compression support is currently experimental. In case it is turned on, please report any bugs to "bug-wget@gnu.org".

           Specifies the maximum number of redirections to follow for a resource.  The default is 20, which is usually far more
           than necessary. However, on those occasions where you want to allow more (or fewer), this is the option to use.

           Specify the username user and password password for authentication on a proxy server.  Wget will encode them using the
           "basic" authentication scheme.

           Security considerations similar to those with --http-password pertain here as well.

           Include `Referer: url' header in HTTP request.  Useful for retrieving documents with server-side processing that assume
           they are always being retrieved by interactive web browsers and only come out properly when Referer is set to one of the
           pages that point to them.

           Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding the actual contents, with an empty line as the

       -U agent-string
           Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

           The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using a "User-Agent" header field.  This enables
           distinguishing the WWW software, usually for statistical purposes or for tracing of protocol violations.  Wget normally
           identifies as Wget/version, version being the current version number of Wget.

           However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of tailoring the output according to the "User-Agent"-supplied
           information.  While this is not such a bad idea in theory, it has been abused by servers denying information to clients
           other than (historically) Netscape or, more frequently, Microsoft Internet Explorer.  This option allows you to change
           the "User-Agent" line issued by Wget.  Use of this option is discouraged, unless you really know what you are doing.

           Specifying empty user agent with --user-agent="" instructs Wget not to send the "User-Agent" header in HTTP requests.

           Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send the specified data in the request body.  --post-data sends string
           as data, whereas --post-file sends the contents of file.  Other than that, they work in exactly the same way. In
           particular, they both expect content of the form "key1=value1&key2=value2", with percent-encoding for special
           characters; the only difference is that one expects its content as a command-line parameter and the other accepts its
           content from a file. In particular, --post-file is not for transmitting files as form attachments: those must appear as
           "key=value" data (with appropriate percent-coding) just like everything else. Wget does not currently support
           "multipart/form-data" for transmitting POST data; only "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". Only one of --post-data and
           --post-file should be specified.

           Please note that wget does not require the content to be of the form "key1=value1&key2=value2", and neither does it test
           for it. Wget will simply transmit whatever data is provided to it. Most servers however expect the POST data to be in
           the above format when processing HTML Forms.

           When sending a POST request using the --post-file option, Wget treats the file as a binary file and will send every
           character in the POST request without stripping trailing newline or formfeed characters. Any other control characters in
           the text will also be sent as-is in the POST request.

           Please be aware that Wget needs to know the size of the POST data in advance.  Therefore the argument to "--post-file"
           must be a regular file; specifying a FIFO or something like /dev/stdin won't work.  It's not quite clear how to work
           around this limitation inherent in HTTP/1.0.  Although HTTP/1.1 introduces chunked transfer that doesn't require knowing
           the request length in advance, a client can't use chunked unless it knows it's talking to an HTTP/1.1 server.  And it
           can't know that until it receives a response, which in turn requires the request to have been completed -- a chicken-
           and-egg problem.

           Note: As of version 1.15 if Wget is redirected after the POST request is completed, its behaviour will depend on the
           response code returned by the server.  In case of a 301 Moved Permanently, 302 Moved Temporarily or 307 Temporary
           Redirect, Wget will, in accordance with RFC2616, continue to send a POST request.  In case a server wants the client to
           change the Request method upon redirection, it should send a 303 See Other response code.

           This example shows how to log in to a server using POST and then proceed to download the desired pages, presumably only
           accessible to authorized users:

                   # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
                   wget --save-cookies cookies.txt \
                        --post-data 'user=foo&password=bar' \

                   # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
                   wget --load-cookies cookies.txt \
                        -p http://example.com/interesting/article.php

           If the server is using session cookies to track user authentication, the above will not work because --save-cookies will
           not save them (and neither will browsers) and the cookies.txt file will be empty.  In that case use
           --keep-session-cookies along with --save-cookies to force saving of session cookies.

           For the purpose of RESTful scripting, Wget allows sending of other HTTP Methods without the need to explicitly set them
           using --header=Header-Line.  Wget will use whatever string is passed to it after --method as the HTTP Method to the

           Must be set when additional data needs to be sent to the server along with the Method specified using --method.
           --body-data sends string as data, whereas --body-file sends the contents of file.  Other than that, they work in exactly
           the same way.

           Currently, --body-file is not for transmitting files as a whole.  Wget does not currently support "multipart/form-data"
           for transmitting data; only "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". In the future, this may be changed so that wget sends
           the --body-file as a complete file instead of sending its contents to the server. Please be aware that Wget needs to
           know the contents of BODY Data in advance, and hence the argument to --body-file should be a regular file. See
           --post-file for a more detailed explanation.  Only one of --body-data and --body-file should be specified.

           If Wget is redirected after the request is completed, Wget will suspend the current method and send a GET request till
           the redirection is completed.  This is true for all redirection response codes except 307 Temporary Redirect which is
           used to explicitly specify that the request method should not change.  Another exception is when the method is set to
           "POST", in which case the redirection rules specified under --post-data are followed.

           If this is set to on, experimental (not fully-functional) support for "Content-Disposition" headers is enabled. This can
           currently result in extra round-trips to the server for a "HEAD" request, and is known to suffer from a few bugs, which
           is why it is not currently enabled by default.

           This option is useful for some file-downloading CGI programs that use "Content-Disposition" headers to describe what the
           name of a downloaded file should be.

           When combined with --metalink-over-http and --trust-server-names, a Content-Type: application/metalink4+xml file is
           named using the "Content-Disposition" filename field, if available.

           If this is set to on, wget will not skip the content when the server responds with a http status code that indicates

           If this is set, on a redirect, the local file name will be based on the redirection URL.  By default the local file name
           is based on the original URL.  When doing recursive retrieving this can be helpful because in many web sites redirected
           URLs correspond to an underlying file structure, while link URLs do not.

           If this option is given, Wget will send Basic HTTP authentication information (plaintext username and password) for all
           requests, just like Wget 1.10.2 and prior did by default.

           Use of this option is not recommended, and is intended only to support some few obscure servers, which never send HTTP
           authentication challenges, but accept unsolicited auth info, say, in addition to form-based authentication.

           Consider host errors, such as "Temporary failure in name resolution", as non-fatal, transient errors.

           Consider given HTTP response codes as non-fatal, transient errors.  Supply a comma-separated list of 3-digit HTTP
           response codes as argument. Useful to work around special circumstances where retries are required, but the server
           responds with an error code normally not retried by Wget. Such errors might be 503 (Service Unavailable) and 429 (Too
           Many Requests). Retries enabled by this option are performed subject to the normal retry timing and retry count
           limitations of Wget.

           Using this option is intended to support special use cases only and is generally not recommended, as it can force
           retries even in cases where the server is actually trying to decrease its load. Please use wisely and only if you know
           what you are doing.

   HTTPS (SSL/TLS) Options
       To support encrypted HTTP (HTTPS) downloads, Wget must be compiled with an external SSL library. The current default is
       GnuTLS.  In addition, Wget also supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security).  If Wget is compiled without SSL support,
       none of these options are available.

           Choose the secure protocol to be used.  Legal values are auto, SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1_1, TLSv1_2, TLSv1_3 and PFS.
           If auto is used, the SSL library is given the liberty of choosing the appropriate protocol automatically, which is
           achieved by sending a TLSv1 greeting. This is the default.

           Specifying SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1_1, TLSv1_2 or TLSv1_3 forces the use of the corresponding protocol.  This is
           useful when talking to old and buggy SSL server implementations that make it hard for the underlying SSL library to
           choose the correct protocol version.  Fortunately, such servers are quite rare.

           Specifying PFS enforces the use of the so-called Perfect Forward Security cipher suites. In short, PFS adds security by
           creating a one-time key for each SSL connection. It has a bit more CPU impact on client and server.  We use known to be
           secure ciphers (e.g. no MD4) and the TLS protocol. This mode also explicitly excludes non-PFS key exchange methods, such
           as RSA.

           When in recursive mode, only HTTPS links are followed.

           Set the cipher list string. Typically this string sets the cipher suites and other SSL/TLS options that the user wish
           should be used, in a set order of preference (GnuTLS calls it 'priority string'). This string will be fed verbatim to
           the SSL/TLS engine (OpenSSL or GnuTLS) and hence its format and syntax is dependent on that. Wget will not process or
           manipulate it in any way. Refer to the OpenSSL or GnuTLS documentation for more information.

           Don't check the server certificate against the available certificate authorities.  Also don't require the URL host name
           to match the common name presented by the certificate.

           As of Wget 1.10, the default is to verify the server's certificate against the recognized certificate authorities,
           breaking the SSL handshake and aborting the download if the verification fails.  Although this provides more secure
           downloads, it does break interoperability with some sites that worked with previous Wget versions, particularly those
           using self-signed, expired, or otherwise invalid certificates.  This option forces an "insecure" mode of operation that
           turns the certificate verification errors into warnings and allows you to proceed.

           If you encounter "certificate verification" errors or ones saying that "common name doesn't match requested host name",
           you can use this option to bypass the verification and proceed with the download.  Only use this option if you are
           otherwise convinced of the site's authenticity, or if you really don't care about the validity of its certificate.  It
           is almost always a bad idea not to check the certificates when transmitting confidential or important data.  For
           self-signed/internal certificates, you should download the certificate and verify against that instead of forcing this
           insecure mode.  If you are really sure of not desiring any certificate verification, you can specify
           --check-certificate=quiet to tell wget to not print any warning about invalid certificates, albeit in most cases this is
           the wrong thing to do.

           Use the client certificate stored in file.  This is needed for servers that are configured to require certificates from
           the clients that connect to them.  Normally a certificate is not required and this switch is optional.

           Specify the type of the client certificate.  Legal values are PEM (assumed by default) and DER, also known as ASN1.

           Read the private key from file.  This allows you to provide the private key in a file separate from the certificate.

           Specify the type of the private key.  Accepted values are PEM (the default) and DER.

           Use file as the file with the bundle of certificate authorities ("CA") to verify the peers.  The certificates must be in
           PEM format.

           Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation

           Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM format.  Each file contains one CA certificate, and the file name
           is based on a hash value derived from the certificate.  This is achieved by processing a certificate directory with the
           "c_rehash" utility supplied with OpenSSL.  Using --ca-directory is more efficient than --ca-certificate when many
           certificates are installed because it allows Wget to fetch certificates on demand.

           Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation

           Specifies a CRL file in file.  This is needed for certificates that have been revocated by the CAs.

           Tells wget to use the specified public key file (or hashes) to verify the peer.  This can be a path to a file which
           contains a single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by "sha256//"
           and separated by ";"

           When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a certificate indicating its identity. A public key is
           extracted from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the public key(s) provided to this option, wget will
           abort the connection before sending or receiving any data.

           [OpenSSL and LibreSSL only] Use file as the source of random data for seeding the pseudo-random number generator on
           systems without /dev/urandom.

           On such systems the SSL library needs an external source of randomness to initialize.  Randomness may be provided by EGD
           (see --egd-file below) or read from an external source specified by the user.  If this option is not specified, Wget
           looks for random data in $RANDFILE or, if that is unset, in $HOME/.rnd.

           If you're getting the "Could not seed OpenSSL PRNG; disabling SSL."  error, you should provide random data using some of
           the methods described above.

           [OpenSSL only] Use file as the EGD socket.  EGD stands for Entropy Gathering Daemon, a user-space program that collects
           data from various unpredictable system sources and makes it available to other programs that might need it.  Encryption
           software, such as the SSL library, needs sources of non-repeating randomness to seed the random number generator used to
           produce cryptographically strong keys.

           OpenSSL allows the user to specify his own source of entropy using the "RAND_FILE" environment variable.  If this
           variable is unset, or if the specified file does not produce enough randomness, OpenSSL will read random data from EGD
           socket specified using this option.

           If this option is not specified (and the equivalent startup command is not used), EGD is never contacted.  EGD is not
           needed on modern Unix systems that support /dev/urandom.

           Wget supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security, RFC 6797) by default.  Use --no-hsts to make Wget act as a non-HSTS-
           compliant UA. As a consequence, Wget would ignore all the "Strict-Transport-Security" headers, and would not enforce any
           existing HSTS policy.

           By default, Wget stores its HSTS database in ~/.wget-hsts.  You can use --hsts-file to override this. Wget will use the
           supplied file as the HSTS database. Such file must conform to the correct HSTS database format used by Wget. If Wget
           cannot parse the provided file, the behaviour is unspecified.

           The Wget's HSTS database is a plain text file. Each line contains an HSTS entry (ie. a site that has issued a
           "Strict-Transport-Security" header and that therefore has specified a concrete HSTS policy to be applied). Lines
           starting with a dash ("#") are ignored by Wget. Please note that in spite of this convenient human-readability hand-
           hacking the HSTS database is generally not a good idea.

           An HSTS entry line consists of several fields separated by one or more whitespace:

           "<hostname> SP [<port>] SP <include subdomains> SP <created> SP <max-age>"

           The hostname and port fields indicate the hostname and port to which the given HSTS policy applies. The port field may
           be zero, and it will, in most of the cases. That means that the port number will not be taken into account when deciding
           whether such HSTS policy should be applied on a given request (only the hostname will be evaluated). When port is
           different to zero, both the target hostname and the port will be evaluated and the HSTS policy will only be applied if
           both of them match. This feature has been included for testing/development purposes only.  The Wget testsuite (in
           testenv/) creates HSTS databases with explicit ports with the purpose of ensuring Wget's correct behaviour. Applying
           HSTS policies to ports other than the default ones is discouraged by RFC 6797 (see Appendix B "Differences between HSTS
           Policy and Same-Origin Policy"). Thus, this functionality should not be used in production environments and port will
           typically be zero. The last three fields do what they are expected to. The field include_subdomains can either be 1 or 0
           and it signals whether the subdomains of the target domain should be part of the given HSTS policy as well. The created
           and max-age fields hold the timestamp values of when such entry was created (first seen by Wget) and the HSTS-defined
           value 'max-age', which states how long should that HSTS policy remain active, measured in seconds elapsed since the
           timestamp stored in created. Once that time has passed, that HSTS policy will no longer be valid and will eventually be
           removed from the database.

           If you supply your own HSTS database via --hsts-file, be aware that Wget may modify the provided file if any change
           occurs between the HSTS policies requested by the remote servers and those in the file. When Wget exits, it effectively
           updates the HSTS database by rewriting the database file with the new entries.

           If the supplied file does not exist, Wget will create one. This file will contain the new HSTS entries. If no HSTS
           entries were generated (no "Strict-Transport-Security" headers were sent by any of the servers) then no file will be
           created, not even an empty one. This behaviour applies to the default database file (~/.wget-hsts) as well: it will not
           be created until some server enforces an HSTS policy.

           Care is taken not to override possible changes made by other Wget processes at the same time over the HSTS database.
           Before dumping the updated HSTS entries on the file, Wget will re-read it and merge the changes.

           Using a custom HSTS database and/or modifying an existing one is discouraged.  For more information about the potential
           security threats arose from such practice, see section 14 "Security Considerations" of RFC 6797, specially section 14.9
           "Creative Manipulation of HSTS Policy Store".

           Use file as the destination WARC file.

           Use string into as the warcinfo record.

           Set the maximum size of the WARC files to size.

           Write CDX index files.

           Do not store records listed in this CDX file.

           Do not compress WARC files with GZIP.

           Do not calculate SHA1 digests.

           Do not store the log file in a WARC record.

           Specify the location for temporary files created by the WARC writer.

   FTP Options
           Specify the username user and password password on an FTP server.  Without this, or the corresponding startup option,
           the password defaults to -wget@, normally used for anonymous FTP.

           Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.  Either method reveals your password to anyone who
           bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, store them in .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to
           protect those files from other users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not leave them lying in
           those files either---edit the files and delete them after Wget has started the download.

           Don't remove the temporary .listing files generated by FTP retrievals.  Normally, these files contain the raw directory
           listings received from FTP servers.  Not removing them can be useful for debugging purposes, or when you want to be able
           to easily check on the contents of remote server directories (e.g. to verify that a mirror you're running is complete).

           Note that even though Wget writes to a known filename for this file, this is not a security hole in the scenario of a
           user making .listing a symbolic link to /etc/passwd or something and asking "root" to run Wget in his or her directory.
           Depending on the options used, either Wget will refuse to write to .listing, making the globbing/recursion/time-stamping
           operation fail, or the symbolic link will be deleted and replaced with the actual .listing file, or the listing will be
           written to a .listing.number file.

           Even though this situation isn't a problem, though, "root" should never run Wget in a non-trusted user's directory.  A
           user could do something as simple as linking index.html to /etc/passwd and asking "root" to run Wget with -N or -r so
           the file will be overwritten.

           Turn off FTP globbing.  Globbing refers to the use of shell-like special characters (wildcards), like *, ?, [ and ] to
           retrieve more than one file from the same directory at once, like:

                   wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/*.msg

           By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL contains a globbing character.  This option may be used to turn
           globbing on or off permanently.

           You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being expanded by your shell.  Globbing makes Wget look for a directory
           listing, which is system-specific.  This is why it currently works only with Unix FTP servers (and the ones emulating
           Unix "ls" output).

           Disable the use of the passive FTP transfer mode.  Passive FTP mandates that the client connect to the server to
           establish the data connection rather than the other way around.

           If the machine is connected to the Internet directly, both passive and active FTP should work equally well.  Behind most
           firewall and NAT configurations passive FTP has a better chance of working.  However, in some rare firewall
           configurations, active FTP actually works when passive FTP doesn't.  If you suspect this to be the case, use this
           option, or set "passive_ftp=off" in your init file.

           Preserve remote file permissions instead of permissions set by umask.

           By default, when retrieving FTP directories recursively and a symbolic link is encountered, the symbolic link is
           traversed and the pointed-to files are retrieved.  Currently, Wget does not traverse symbolic links to directories to
           download them recursively, though this feature may be added in the future.

           When --retr-symlinks=no is specified, the linked-to file is not downloaded.  Instead, a matching symbolic link is
           created on the local filesystem.  The pointed-to file will not be retrieved unless this recursive retrieval would have
           encountered it separately and downloaded it anyway.  This option poses a security risk where a malicious FTP Server may
           cause Wget to write to files outside of the intended directories through a specially crafted .LISTING file.

           Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory) because it was specified on the command-line, rather than because it
           was recursed to, this option has no effect.  Symbolic links are always traversed in this case.

   FTPS Options
           This option tells Wget to use FTPS implicitly. Implicit FTPS consists of initializing SSL/TLS from the very beginning of
           the control connection. This option does not send an "AUTH TLS" command: it assumes the server speaks FTPS and directly
           starts an SSL/TLS connection. If the attempt is successful, the session continues just like regular FTPS ("PBSZ" and
           "PROT" are sent, etc.).  Implicit FTPS is no longer a requirement for FTPS implementations, and thus many servers may
           not support it. If --ftps-implicit is passed and no explicit port number specified, the default port for implicit FTPS,
           990, will be used, instead of the default port for the "normal" (explicit) FTPS which is the same as that of FTP, 21.

           Do not resume the SSL/TLS session in the data channel. When starting a data connection, Wget tries to resume the SSL/TLS
           session previously started in the control connection.  SSL/TLS session resumption avoids performing an entirely new
           handshake by reusing the SSL/TLS parameters of a previous session. Typically, the FTPS servers want it that way, so Wget
           does this by default. Under rare circumstances however, one might want to start an entirely new SSL/TLS session in every
           data connection.  This is what --no-ftps-resume-ssl is for.

           All the data connections will be in plain text. Only the control connection will be under SSL/TLS. Wget will send a
           "PROT C" command to achieve this, which must be approved by the server.

           Fall back to FTP if FTPS is not supported by the target server. For security reasons, this option is not asserted by
           default. The default behaviour is to exit with an error.  If a server does not successfully reply to the initial "AUTH
           TLS" command, or in the case of implicit FTPS, if the initial SSL/TLS connection attempt is rejected, it is considered
           that such server does not support FTPS.

   Recursive Retrieval Options
           Turn on recursive retrieving.    The default maximum depth is 5.

       -l depth
           Set the maximum number of subdirectories that Wget will recurse into to depth.  In order to prevent one from
           accidentally downloading very large websites when using recursion this is limited to a depth of 5 by default, i.e., it
           will traverse at most 5 directories deep starting from the provided URL.  Set -l 0 or -l inf for infinite recursion

                   wget -r -l 0 http://<site>/1.html

           Ideally, one would expect this to download just 1.html.  but unfortunately this is not the case, because -l 0 is
           equivalent to -l inf---that is, infinite recursion.  To download a single HTML page (or a handful of them), specify them
           all on the command line and leave away -r and -l. To download the essential items to view a single HTML page, see page

           This option tells Wget to delete every single file it downloads, after having done so.  It is useful for pre-fetching
           popular pages through a proxy, e.g.:

                   wget -r -nd --delete-after http://whatever.com/~popular/page/

           The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create directories.

           Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local machine.  It does not issue the DELE command to remote FTP sites,
           for instance.  Also note that when --delete-after is specified, --convert-links is ignored, so .orig files are simply
           not created in the first place.

           After the download is complete, convert the links in the document to make them suitable for local viewing.  This affects
           not only the visible hyperlinks, but any part of the document that links to external content, such as embedded images,
           links to style sheets, hyperlinks to non-HTML content, etc.

           Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

           •   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget will be changed to refer to the file they point to as a
               relative link.

               Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in doc.html will
               be modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of transformation works reliably for arbitrary combinations of

           •   The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget will be changed to include host name and absolute path of
               the location they point to.

               Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the link in
               doc.html will be modified to point to http://hostname/bar/img.gif.

           Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file was downloaded, the link will refer to its local name;
           if it was not downloaded, the link will refer to its full Internet address rather than presenting a broken link.  The
           fact that the former links are converted to relative links ensures that you can move the downloaded hierarchy to another

           Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know which links have been downloaded.  Because of that, the work
           done by -k will be performed at the end of all the downloads.

           This option converts only the filename part of the URLs, leaving the rest of the URLs untouched. This filename part is
           sometimes referred to as the "basename", although we avoid that term here in order not to cause confusion.

           It works particularly well in conjunction with --adjust-extension, although this coupling is not enforced. It proves
           useful to populate Internet caches with files downloaded from different hosts.

           Example: if some link points to //foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz with --adjust-extension asserted and its local destination is
           intended to be ./foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz.css, then the link would be converted to //foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz.css. Note that only
           the filename part has been modified. The rest of the URL has been left untouched, including the net path ("//") which
           would otherwise be processed by Wget and converted to the effective scheme (ie. "http://").

           When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig suffix.  Affects the behavior of -N.

           Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option turns on recursion and time-stamping, sets infinite recursion depth
           and keeps FTP directory listings.  It is currently equivalent to -r -N -l inf --no-remove-listing.

           This option causes Wget to download all the files that are necessary to properly display a given HTML page.  This
           includes such things as inlined images, sounds, and referenced stylesheets.

           Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any requisite documents that may be needed to display it properly are
           not downloaded.  Using -r together with -l can help, but since Wget does not ordinarily distinguish between external and
           inlined documents, one is generally left with "leaf documents" that are missing their requisites.

           For instance, say document 1.html contains an "<IMG>" tag referencing 1.gif and an "<A>" tag pointing to external
           document 2.html.  Say that 2.html is similar but that its image is 2.gif and it links to 3.html.  Say this continues up
           to some arbitrarily high number.

           If one executes the command:

                   wget -r -l 2 http://<site>/1.html

           then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded.  As you can see, 3.html is without its requisite 3.gif
           because Wget is simply counting the number of hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in order to determine where to stop the
           recursion.  However, with this command:

                   wget -r -l 2 -p http://<site>/1.html

           all the above files and 3.html's requisite 3.gif will be downloaded.  Similarly,

                   wget -r -l 1 -p http://<site>/1.html

           will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded.  One might think that:

                   wget -r -l 0 -p http://<site>/1.html

           would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is not the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l
           inf---that is, infinite recursion.  To download a single HTML page (or a handful of them, all specified on the command-
           line or in a -i URL input file) and its (or their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:

                   wget -p http://<site>/1.html

           Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified, but only that single page and its requisites will be downloaded.
           Links from that page to external documents will not be followed.  Actually, to download a single page and all its
           requisites (even if they exist on separate websites), and make sure the lot displays properly locally, this author likes
           to use a few options in addition to -p:

                   wget -E -H -k -K -p http://<site>/<document>

           To finish off this topic, it's worth knowing that Wget's idea of an external document link is any URL specified in an
           "<A>" tag, an "<AREA>" tag, or a "<LINK>" tag other than "<LINK REL="stylesheet">".

           Turn on strict parsing of HTML comments.  The default is to terminate comments at the first occurrence of -->.

           According to specifications, HTML comments are expressed as SGML declarations.  Declaration is special markup that
           begins with <! and ends with >, such as <!DOCTYPE ...>, that may contain comments between a pair of -- delimiters.  HTML
           comments are "empty declarations", SGML declarations without any non-comment text.  Therefore, <!--foo--> is a valid
           comment, and so is <!--one-- --two-->, but <!--1--2--> is not.

           On the other hand, most HTML writers don't perceive comments as anything other than text delimited with <!-- and -->,
           which is not quite the same.  For example, something like <!------------> works as a valid comment as long as the number
           of dashes is a multiple of four (!).  If not, the comment technically lasts until the next --, which may be at the other
           end of the document.  Because of this, many popular browsers completely ignore the specification and implement what
           users have come to expect: comments delimited with <!-- and -->.

           Until version 1.9, Wget interpreted comments strictly, which resulted in missing links in many web pages that displayed
           fine in browsers, but had the misfortune of containing non-compliant comments.  Beginning with version 1.9, Wget has
           joined the ranks of clients that implements "naive" comments, terminating each comment at the first occurrence of -->.

           If, for whatever reason, you want strict comment parsing, use this option to turn it on.

   Recursive Accept/Reject Options
       -A acclist --accept acclist
       -R rejlist --reject rejlist
           Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns to accept or reject. Note that if any of the wildcard
           characters, *, ?, [ or ], appear in an element of acclist or rejlist, it will be treated as a pattern, rather than a
           suffix.  In this case, you have to enclose the pattern into quotes to prevent your shell from expanding it, like in -A
           "*.mp3" or -A '*.mp3'.

       --accept-regex urlregex
       --reject-regex urlregex
           Specify a regular expression to accept or reject the complete URL.

       --regex-type regextype
           Specify the regular expression type.  Possible types are posix or pcre.  Note that to be able to use pcre type, wget has
           to be compiled with libpcre support.

       -D domain-list
           Set domains to be followed.  domain-list is a comma-separated list of domains.  Note that it does not turn on -H.

       --exclude-domains domain-list
           Specify the domains that are not to be followed.

           Follow FTP links from HTML documents.  Without this option, Wget will ignore all the FTP links.

           Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it considers when looking for linked documents during a
           recursive retrieval.  If a user wants only a subset of those tags to be considered, however, he or she should be specify
           such tags in a comma-separated list with this option.

           This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option.  To skip certain HTML tags when recursively looking for documents to
           download, specify them in a comma-separated list.

           In the past, this option was the best bet for downloading a single page and its requisites, using a command-line like:

                   wget --ignore-tags=a,area -H -k -K -r http://<site>/<document>

           However, the author of this option came across a page with tags like "<LINK REL="home" HREF="/">" and came to the
           realization that specifying tags to ignore was not enough.  One can't just tell Wget to ignore "<LINK>", because then
           stylesheets will not be downloaded.  Now the best bet for downloading a single page and its requisites is the dedicated
           --page-requisites option.

           Ignore case when matching files and directories.  This influences the behavior of -R, -A, -I, and -X options, as well as
           globbing implemented when downloading from FTP sites.  For example, with this option, -A "*.txt" will match file1.txt,
           but also file2.TXT, file3.TxT, and so on.  The quotes in the example are to prevent the shell from expanding the

           Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving.

           Follow relative links only.  Useful for retrieving a specific home page without any distractions, not even those from
           the same hosts.

       -I list
           Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow when downloading.  Elements of list may contain

       -X list
           Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude from download.  Elements of list may contain

           Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving recursively.  This is a useful option, since it guarantees
           that only the files below a certain hierarchy will be downloaded.

       Wget supports proxies for both HTTP and FTP retrievals.  The standard way to specify proxy location, which Wget recognizes,
       is using the following environment variables:

           If set, the http_proxy and https_proxy variables should contain the URLs of the proxies for HTTP and HTTPS connections

           This variable should contain the URL of the proxy for FTP connections.  It is quite common that http_proxy and ftp_proxy
           are set to the same URL.

           This variable should contain a comma-separated list of domain extensions proxy should not be used for.  For instance, if
           the value of no_proxy is .mit.edu, proxy will not be used to retrieve documents from MIT.

       Wget may return one of several error codes if it encounters problems.

       0   No problems occurred.

       1   Generic error code.

       2   Parse error---for instance, when parsing command-line options, the .wgetrc or .netrc...

       3   File I/O error.

       4   Network failure.

       5   SSL verification failure.

       6   Username/password authentication failure.

       7   Protocol errors.

       8   Server issued an error response.

       With the exceptions of 0 and 1, the lower-numbered exit codes take precedence over higher-numbered ones, when multiple types
       of errors are encountered.

       In versions of Wget prior to 1.12, Wget's exit status tended to be unhelpful and inconsistent. Recursive downloads would
       virtually always return 0 (success), regardless of any issues encountered, and non-recursive fetches only returned the
       status corresponding to the most recently-attempted download.

           Default location of the global startup file.

           User startup file.

       You are welcome to submit bug reports via the GNU Wget bug tracker (see
       <https://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?func=additem&group=wget>) or to our mailing list <bug-wget@gnu.org>.

       Visit <https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/bug-wget> to get more info (how to subscribe, list archives, ...).

       Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few simple guidelines.

       1.  Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really is a bug.  If Wget crashes, it's a bug.  If Wget does not
           behave as documented, it's a bug.  If things work strange, but you are not sure about the way they are supposed to work,
           it might well be a bug, but you might want to double-check the documentation and the mailing lists.

       2.  Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible.  E.g. if Wget crashes while downloading wget -rl0 -kKE -t5
           --no-proxy http://example.com -o /tmp/log, you should try to see if the crash is repeatable, and if will occur with a
           simpler set of options.  You might even try to start the download at the page where the crash occurred to see if that
           page somehow triggered the crash.

           Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of your .wgetrc file, just dumping it into the debug
           message is probably a bad idea.  Instead, you should first try to see if the bug repeats with .wgetrc moved out of the
           way.  Only if it turns out that .wgetrc settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant parts of the file.

       3.  Please start Wget with -d option and send us the resulting output (or relevant parts thereof).  If Wget was compiled
           without debug support, recompile it---it is much easier to trace bugs with debug support on.

           Note: please make sure to remove any potentially sensitive information from the debug log before sending it to the bug
           address.  The "-d" won't go out of its way to collect sensitive information, but the log will contain a fairly complete
           transcript of Wget's communication with the server, which may include passwords and pieces of downloaded data.  Since
           the bug address is publicly archived, you may assume that all bug reports are visible to the public.

       4.  If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. "gdb `which wget` core" and type "where" to get the backtrace.
           This may not work if the system administrator has disabled core files, but it is safe to try.

       This is not the complete manual for GNU Wget.  For more complete information, including more detailed explanations of some
       of the options, and a number of commands available for use with .wgetrc files and the -e option, see the GNU Info entry for

       Also see wget2(1), the updated version of GNU Wget with even better support for recursive downloading and modern protocols
       like HTTP/2.

       Originally written by Hrvoje Nikšić <hniksic@xemacs.org>.  Currently maintained by Darshit Shah <darnir@gnu.org> and Tim
       Rühsen <tim.ruehsen@gmx.de>.

       Copyright (c) 1996--2011, 2015, 2018--2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
       Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover
       Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation

GNU Wget 1.21.3                                              2022-05-18                                                     WGET(1)