HTPASSWD(1)                                                   htpasswd                                                  HTPASSWD(1)

       htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication

       htpasswd [ -c ] [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ] passwdfile username

       htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ] passwdfile username password

       htpasswd -n [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username

       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username password

       htpasswd  is  used to create and update the flat-files used to store usernames and password for basic authentication of HTTP
       users. If htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the output file or not being able  to  read  the
       file in order to update it, it returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to just the users listed in the files created by htpasswd.
       This program can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file. It can encrypt and display password  information
       for use in other types of data stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage or htdbm.

       htpasswd  encrypts  passwords  using either bcrypt, a version of MD5 modified for Apache, SHA1, or the system's crypt() rou‐
       tine. Files managed by htpasswd may contain a mixture of different encoding types of passwords; some user records  may  have
       bcrypt or MD5-encrypted passwords while others in the same file may have passwords encrypted with crypt().

       This  manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of the directives necessary to configure user authenti‐
       cation in httpd see the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be found at

       -b     Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line rather than prompting for it. This option should be used
              with  extreme  care,  since  the  password  is clearly visible on the command line. For script use see the -i option.
              Available in 2.4.4 and later.

       -i     Read the password from stdin without verification (for script usage).

       -c     Create the passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is rewritten and truncated. This option  cannot  be  combined
              with the -n option.

       -n     Display  the  results  on standard output rather than updating a file. This is useful for generating password records
              acceptable to Apache for inclusion in non-text data stores. This option changes the syntax of the command line, since
              the passwdfile argument (usually the first one) is omitted. It cannot be combined with the -c option.

       -m     Use MD5 encryption for passwords. This is the default (since version 2.2.18).

       -B     Use bcrypt encryption for passwords. This is currently considered to be very secure.

       -C     This  flag is only allowed in combination with -B (bcrypt encryption). It sets the computing time used for the bcrypt
              algorithm (higher is more secure but slower, default: 5, valid: 4 to 17).

       -d     Use crypt() encryption for passwords. This is not supported by the httpd server on Windows and  Netware.  This  algo‐
              rithm  limits the password length to 8 characters. This algorithm is insecure by today's standards. It used to be the
              default algorithm until version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration from/to Netscape servers using the LDAP Directory Interchange
              Format (ldif). This algorithm is insecure by today's standards.

       -p     Use  plaintext  passwords.  Though htpasswd will support creation on all platforms, the httpd daemon will only accept
              plain text passwords on Windows and Netware.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in the specified htpasswd file, it will be deleted.

       -v     Verify password. Verify that the given password matches the password of the user stored  in  the  specified  htpasswd
              file. Available in 2.4.5 and later.

              Name  of  the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is given, this file is created if it does not already
              exist, or rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does not exist in this file, an entry  is  added.  If  it
              does exist, the password is changed.

              The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in the file. Only used with the -b flag.

       htpasswd  returns a zero status ("true") if the username and password have been successfully added or updated in the passwd‐
       file. htpasswd returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was a syntax  problem  with  the  command
       line,  3  if  the  password was entered interactively and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its operation was inter‐
       rupted, 5 if a value is too long (username, filename, password, or final computed record), 6 if the username contains  ille‐
       gal characters (see the Restrictions section), and 7 if the file is not a valid password file.

             htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith

       Adds  or  modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for the password. The password will be encrypted using
       the modified Apache MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist, htpasswd will do nothing except return an error.

             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The user is prompted for the password. If the  file  exists  and
       cannot be read, or cannot be written, it is not altered and htpasswd will display a message and return an error status.

             htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

       Encrypts the password from the command line (Pwd4Steve) using the crypt() algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.

       Web password files such as those managed by htpasswd should not be within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should
       not be fetchable with a browser.

       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.

       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since when it is used the unencrypted password appears on the command line.

       When using the crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters of the password are used to form  the  password.  If
       the supplied password is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.

       The  SHA  encryption  format  does  not  use  salting: for a given password, there is only one encrypted representation. The
       crypt() and MD5 formats permute the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make  dictionary  attacks  against
       the passwords more difficult.

       The SHA and crypt() formats are insecure by today's standards.

       On  the  Windows  platform,  passwords  encrypted with htpasswd are limited to no more than 255 characters in length. Longer
       passwords will be truncated to 255 characters.

       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software; passwords encrypted using it will not be usable  with
       other Web servers.

       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character :.

       The  cost of computing a bcrypt password hash value increases with the number of rounds specified by the -C option. The apr-
       util library enforces a maximum number of rounds of 17 in version 1.6.0 and later.

Apache HTTP Server                                           2019-08-09                                                 HTPASSWD(1)