MAKE(1)                                                    User Commands                                                    MAKE(1)

       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

       make [OPTION]... [TARGET]...

       The  make utility will determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands
       to recompile them.  The manual describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by Richard  Stallman  and  Roland
       McGrath,  and  is currently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since they are very common, but you can
       use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to pro‐
       grams.   You  can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in your  pro‐
       gram,  and  the states the commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the executable file is updated from ob‐
       ject files, which are in turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses the makefile description and the  last-modification
       times  of  the  files  to  decide  which  of  the files need to be updated.  For each of those files, it issues the commands
       recorded in the makefile.

       make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is typically a program.  If no -f  op‐
       tion is present, make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

       Normally  you  should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We recommend Makefile because it appears prominently
       near the beginning of a directory listing, right near other important files such as README.)  The first name  checked,  GNU‐
       makefile,  is  not  recommended for most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a makefile that is specific to GNU
       make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is '-', the standard input is read.

       make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since the target was last modified, or  if
       the target does not exist.

       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change  to  directory  dir  before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If multiple -C options are specified,
            each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.  This is  typically  used  with
            recursive invocations of make.

       -d   Print  debugging  information  in  addition to normal processing.  The debugging information says which files are being
            considered for remaking, which file-times are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be re‐
            made, which implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to

            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the  same
            as  if -d was specified.  FLAGS may be a for all debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more
            verbose basic debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands,  and  m  for  debugging
            while remaking makefiles.  Use n to disable all previous debugging flags.

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If several -I options are used to specify several directo‐
            ries, the directories are searched in the order specified.  Unlike the arguments to other flags  of  make,  directories
            given  with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.  This syntax is allowed for
            compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than one -j option, the  last  one  is
            effective.  If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simulta‐
            neously. When make invokes a sub-make, all instances of make will coordinate to run the specified number of jobs  at  a
            time; see the section PARALLEL MAKE AND THE JOBSERVER for details.

       --jobserver-fds [R,W]
            Internal  option make uses to pass the jobserver pipe read and write file descriptor numbers to sub-makes; see the sec‐
            tion PARALLEL MAKE AND THE JOBSERVER for details

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that failed, and those that depend on it, cannot be  re‐
            made, the other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies  that  no  new  jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average is at
            least load (a floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them (except in certain circumstances).

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes
            in file.  Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

       -O[type], --output-sync[=type]
            When  running multiple jobs in parallel with -j, ensure the output of each job is collected together rather than inter‐
            spersed with output from other jobs.  If type is not specified or is target the output from the entire recipe for  each
            target is grouped together.  If type is line the output from each command line within a recipe is grouped together.  If
            type is recurse output from an entire recursive make is grouped together.  If type is none  output  synchronization  is

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print  the  data  base (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as
            otherwise specified.  This also prints the version information given by the -v switch (see below).  To print  the  data
            base without trying to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ``Question  mode''.   Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit status that is zero if the speci‐
            fied targets are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the default list of suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel the effect of the -k option.  This is never necessary except in a recursive make where  -k  might  be  inherited
            from the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
            Touch  files  (mark  them  up to date without really changing them) instead of running their commands.  This is used to
            pretend that the commands were done, in order to fool future invocations of make.

            Information about the disposition of each target is printed (why the target is being rebuilt and what commands are  run
            to rebuild it).

       -v, --version
            Print the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
            Print  a  message  containing the working directory before and after other processing.  This may be useful for tracking
            down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend that the target file has just been modified.  When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would  happen  if
            you  were  to  modify that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before
            running make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.

       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no targets that  were  built  failed.   A
       status  of  one will be returned if the -q flag was used and make determines that a target needs to be rebuilt.  A status of
       two will be returned if any errors were encountered.

       The full documentation for make is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and make programs are properly installed  at
       your site, the command

              info make

       should   give   you   access   to   the   complete   manual.   Additionally,   the   manual  is  also  available  online  at

       Using the -j option, the user can instruct make to execute tasks in parallel. By specifying a numeric  argument  to  -j  the
       user may specify an upper limit of the number of parallel tasks to be run.

       When  the  build environment is such that a top level make invokes sub-makes (for instance, a style in which each sub-direc‐
       tory contains its own Makefile ), no individual instance of make knows how many tasks are running in  parallel,  so  keeping
       the  number of tasks under the upper limit would be impossible without communication between all the make instances running.
       While solutions like having the top level make serve as a central controller are feasible, or  using  other  synchronization
       mechanisms like shared memory or sockets can be created, the current implementation uses a simple shared pipe.

       This pipe is created by the top-level make process, and passed on to all the sub-makes.  The top level makeprocesswrites N-1
       one-byte tokens into the pipe (The top level make is assumed to reserve one token for itself). Whenever any of the make pro‐
       cesses (including the top-level make ) needs to run a new task, it reads a byte from the shared pipe. If there are no tokens
       left, it must wait for a token to be written back to the pipe. Once the task is completed, the make process writes  a  token
       back  to  the pipe (and thus, if the tokens had been exhausted, unblocking the first make process that was waiting to read a
       token).  Since only N-1 tokens were written into the pipe, no more than N tasks can be running at any given time.

       If the job to be run is not a sub-make then make will close the jobserver pipe file descriptors  before  invoking  the  com‐
       mands, so that the command can not interfere with the jobserver, and the command does not find any unusual file descriptors.

       See the chapter ``Problems and Bugs'' in The GNU Make Manual.

       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.  Further updates contributed by Mike Frysinger.  It has
       been reworked by Roland McGrath.  Maintained by Paul Smith.

       Copyright © 1992-1993, 1996-2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part of GNU make.

       GNU Make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU  General  Public  License  as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       GNU  Make  is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You  should  have  received  a  copy  of  the  GNU  General  Public  License  along  with  this  program.    If   not,   see

GNU                                                       28 February 2016                                                  MAKE(1)