newlocale(3)                                          Library Functions Manual                                         newlocale(3)

       newlocale, freelocale - create, modify, and free a locale object

       Standard C library (libc, -lc)

       #include <locale.h>

       locale_t newlocale(int category_mask, const char *locale,
                          locale_t base);
       void freelocale(locale_t locobj);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       newlocale(), freelocale():
           Since glibc 2.10:
               _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700
           Before glibc 2.10:

       The  newlocale()  function  creates a new locale object, or modifies an existing object, returning a reference to the new or
       modified object as the function result.  Whether the call creates a new object or modifies an existing object is  determined
       by the value of base:

       •  If base is (locale_t) 0, a new object is created.

       •  If  base  refers  to  valid  existing locale object (i.e., an object returned by a previous call to newlocale() or duplo‐
          cale(3)), then that object is modified by the call.  If the call is successful, the contents of base are unspecified  (in
          particular,  the object referred to by base may be freed, and a new object created).  Therefore, the caller should ensure
          that it stops using base before the call to newlocale(), and should subsequently refer to the  modified  object  via  the
          reference returned as the function result.  If the call fails, the contents of base remain valid and unchanged.

       If  base  is the special locale object LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE (see duplocale(3)), or is not (locale_t) 0 and is not a valid locale
       object handle, the behavior is undefined.

       The category_mask argument is a bit mask that specifies the locale categories that are to be set in a newly  created  locale
       object  or  modified  in  an  existing  object.   The  mask is constructed by a bitwise OR of the constants LC_ADDRESS_MASK,
       MERIC_MASK,  LC_NAME_MASK,  LC_PAPER_MASK, LC_TELEPHONE_MASK, and LC_TIME_MASK.  Alternatively, the mask can be specified as
       LC_ALL_MASK, which is equivalent to ORing all of the preceding constants.

       For each category specified in category_mask, the locale data from locale will be used in  the  object  returned  by  newlo‐
       cale().   If  a new locale object is being created, data for all categories not specified in category_mask is taken from the
       default ("POSIX") locale.

       The following preset values of locale are defined for all categories that can be specified in category_mask:

              A minimal locale environment for C language programs.

       "C"    Equivalent to "POSIX".

       ""     An implementation-defined native environment corresponding to the values of the LC_* and LANG  environment  variables
              (see locale(7)).

       The freelocale() function deallocates the resources associated with locobj, a locale object previously returned by a call to
       newlocale() or duplocale(3).  If locobj is LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE or is not valid locale object handle, the results are undefined.

       Once a locale object has been freed, the program should make no further use of it.

       On success, newlocale() returns a handle that can be used in calls to duplocale(3), freelocale(), and other  functions  that
       take a locale_t argument.  On error, newlocale() returns (locale_t) 0, and sets errno to indicate the error.

       EINVAL One or more bits in category_mask do not correspond to a valid locale category.

       EINVAL locale is NULL.

       ENOENT locale is not a string pointer referring to a valid locale.

       ENOMEM Insufficient memory to create a locale object.

       The newlocale() and freelocale() functions first appeared in glibc 2.3.


       Each locale object created by newlocale() should be deallocated using freelocale().

       The  program below takes up to two command-line arguments, which each identify locales.  The first argument is required, and
       is used to set the LC_NUMERIC category in a locale object created using newlocale().  The second  command-line  argument  is
       optional; if it is present, it is used to set the LC_TIME category of the locale object.

       Having  created and initialized the locale object, the program then applies it using uselocale(3), and then tests the effect
       of the locale changes by:

       (1)  Displaying a floating-point number with a fractional part.  This output will be affected by the LC_NUMERIC setting.  In
            many  European-language  locales,  the  fractional part of the number is separated from the integer part using a comma,
            rather than a period.

       (2)  Displaying the date.  The format and language of the output will be affected by the LC_TIME setting.

       The following shell sessions show some example runs of this program.

       Set the LC_NUMERIC category to fr_FR (French):

           $ ./a.out fr_FR
           Fri Mar  7 00:25:08 2014

       Set the LC_NUMERIC category to fr_FR (French), and the LC_TIME category to it_IT (Italian):

           $ ./a.out fr_FR it_IT
           ven 07 mar 2014 00:26:01 CET

       Specify the LC_TIME setting as an empty string, which causes the value  to  be  taken  from  environment  variable  settings
       (which, here, specify mi_NZ, New Zealand Māori):

           $ LC_ALL=mi_NZ ./a.out fr_FR ""
           Te Paraire, te 07 o Poutū-te-rangi, 2014 00:38:44 CET

   Program source
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 700
       #include <locale.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <time.h>

       #define errExit(msg)    do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
                               } while (0)

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           char buf[100];
           time_t t;
           size_t s;
           struct tm *tm;
           locale_t loc, nloc;

           if (argc < 2) {
               fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s locale1 [locale2]\n", argv[0]);

           /* Create a new locale object, taking the LC_NUMERIC settings
              from the locale specified in argv[1]. */

           loc = newlocale(LC_NUMERIC_MASK, argv[1], (locale_t) 0);
           if (loc == (locale_t) 0)

           /* If a second command-line argument was specified, modify the
              locale object to take the LC_TIME settings from the locale
              specified in argv[2]. We assign the result of this newlocale()
              call to 'nloc' rather than 'loc', since in some cases, we might
              want to preserve 'loc' if this call fails. */

           if (argc > 2) {
               nloc = newlocale(LC_TIME_MASK, argv[2], loc);
               if (nloc == (locale_t) 0)
               loc = nloc;

           /* Apply the newly created locale to this thread. */


           /* Test effect of LC_NUMERIC. */

           printf("%8.3f\n", 123456.789);

           /* Test effect of LC_TIME. */

           t = time(NULL);
           tm = localtime(&t);
           if (tm == NULL)

           s = strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%c", tm);
           if (s == 0)

           printf("%s\n", buf);

           /* Free the locale object. */

           uselocale(LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE);    /* So 'loc' is no longer in use */


       locale(1), duplocale(3), setlocale(3), uselocale(3), locale(5), locale(7)

Linux man-pages 6.03                                         2023-02-05                                                newlocale(3)