dpkg(1)                                                      dpkg suite                                                     dpkg(1)

       dpkg - package manager for Debian

       dpkg [option...] action

       This manual is intended for users wishing to understand dpkg's command line options and package states in more detail than
       that provided by dpkg --help.

       It should not be used by package maintainers wishing to understand how dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of
       what dpkg does when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.

       dpkg is a medium-level tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages.  The primary and more user-friendly front-
       end for dpkg as a CLI (command-line interface) is apt(8) and as a TUI (terminal user interface) is aptitude(8).  dpkg itself
       is controlled entirely via command line parameters, which consist of exactly one action and zero or more options. The
       action-parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior of the action in some way.

       dpkg can also be used as a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and dpkg-query(1). The list of supported actions can be found later on
       in the ACTIONS section. If any such action is encountered dpkg just runs dpkg-deb or dpkg-query with the parameters given to
       it, but no specific options are currently passed to them, to use any such option the back-ends need to be called directly.

       dpkg maintains some usable information about available packages. The information is divided in three classes: states,
       selection states and flags. These values are intended to be changed mainly with dselect.

   Package states
           The package is not installed on your system.

           Only the configuration files or the postrm script and the data it needs to remove of the package exist on the system.

           The installation of the package has been started, but not completed for some reason.

           The package is unpacked, but not configured.

           The package is unpacked and configuration has been started, but not yet completed for some reason.

           The package awaits trigger processing by another package.

           The package has been triggered.

           The package is correctly unpacked and configured.

   Package selection states
           The package is selected for installation.

           A package marked to be on hold is kept on the same version, that is, no automatic new installs, upgrades or removals
           will be performed on them, unless these actions are requested explicitly, or are permitted to be done automatically with
           the --force-hold option.

           The package is selected for deinstallation (i.e. we want to remove all files, except configuration files).

           The package is selected to be purged (i.e. we want to remove everything from system directories, even configuration

           The package selection is unknown.  A package that is also in a not-installed state, and with an ok flag will be
           forgotten in the next database store.

   Package flags
       ok  A package marked ok is in a known state, but might need further processing.

           A package marked reinstreq is broken and requires reinstallation. These packages cannot be removed, unless forced with
           option --force-remove-reinstreq.

       -i, --install package-file...
           Install the package. If --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory instead.

           Installation consists of the following steps:

           1. Extract the control files of the new package.

           2. If another version of the same package was installed before the new installation, execute prerm script of the old

           3. Run preinst script, if provided by the package.

           4. Unpack the new files, and at the same time back up the old files, so that if something goes wrong, they can be

           5. If another version of the same package was installed before the new installation, execute the postrm script of the
           old package. Note that this script is executed after the preinst script of the new package, because new files are
           written at the same time old files are removed.

           6. Configure the package. See --configure for detailed information about how this is done.

       --unpack package-file...
           Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a
           directory instead.

           Will process triggers for Pre-Depends unless --no-triggers has been specified.

       --configure package...|-a|--pending
           Configure a package which has been unpacked but not yet configured.  If -a or --pending is given instead of package, all
           unpacked but unconfigured packages are configured.

           To reconfigure a package which has already been configured, try the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.

           Configuring consists of the following steps:

           1. Unpack the conffiles, and at the same time back up the old conffiles, so that they can be restored if something goes

           2. Run postinst script, if provided by the package.

           Will process triggers unless --no-triggers has been specified.

       --triggers-only package...|-a|--pending
           Processes only triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).  All pending triggers will be processed.  If package names are supplied
           only those packages' triggers will be processed, exactly once each where necessary. Use of this option may leave
           packages in the improper triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be fixed later by running: dpkg
           --configure --pending.

       -r, --remove package...|-a|--pending
           Remove an installed package.  This removes everything except conffiles and other data cleaned up by the postrm script,
           which may avoid having to reconfigure the package if it is reinstalled later (conffiles are configuration files that are
           listed in the DEBIAN/conffiles control file).  If there is no DEBIAN/conffiles control file nor DEBIAN/postrm script,
           this command is equivalent to calling --purge.  If -a or --pending is given instead of a package name, then all packages
           unpacked, but marked to be removed in file /var/lib/dpkg/status, are removed.

           Removing of a package consists of the following steps:

           1. Run prerm script

           2. Remove the installed files

           3. Run postrm script

           Will process triggers unless --no-triggers has been specified.

       -P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
           Purge an installed or already removed package. This removes everything, including conffiles, and anything else cleaned
           up from postrm.  If -a or --pending is given instead of a package name, then all packages unpacked or removed, but
           marked to be purged in file /var/lib/dpkg/status, are purged.

           Note: Some configuration files might be unknown to dpkg because they are created and handled separately through the
           configuration scripts. In that case, dpkg won't remove them by itself, but the package's postrm script (which is called
           by dpkg), has to take care of their removal during purge. Of course, this only applies to files in system directories,
           not configuration files written to individual users' home directories.

           Purging of a package consists of the following steps:

           1. Remove the package, if not already removed. See --remove for detailed information about how this is done.

           2. Run postrm script.

           Will process triggers unless --no-triggers has been specified.

       -V, --verify [package-name...]
           Verifies the integrity of package-name or all packages if omitted, by comparing information from the files installed by
           a package with the files metadata information stored in the dpkg database (since dpkg 1.17.2).  The origin of the files
           metadata information in the database is the binary packages themselves. That metadata gets collected at package unpack
           time during the installation process.

           Currently the only functional check performed is an md5sum verification of the file contents against the stored value in
           the files database.  It will only get checked if the database contains the file md5sum. To check for any missing
           metadata in the database, the --audit command can be used.

           The output format is selectable with the --verify-format option, which by default uses the rpm format, but that might
           change in the future, and as such, programs parsing this command output should be explicit about the format they expect.

       -C, --audit [package-name...]
           Performs database sanity and consistency checks for package-name or all packages if omitted (per package checks since
           dpkg 1.17.10).  For example, searches for packages that have been installed only partially on your system or that have
           missing, wrong or obsolete control data or files. dpkg will suggest what to do with them to get them fixed.

       --update-avail [Packages-file]
       --merge-avail [Packages-file]
           Update dpkg's and dselect's idea of which packages are available. With action --merge-avail, old information is combined
           with information from Packages-file. With action --update-avail, old information is replaced with the information in the
           Packages-file. The Packages-file distributed with Debian is simply named «Packages». If the Packages-file argument is
           missing or named «-» then it will be read from standard input (since dpkg 1.17.7). dpkg keeps its record of available
           packages in /var/lib/dpkg/available.

           A simpler one-shot command to retrieve and update the available file is dselect update. Note that this file is mostly
           useless if you don't use dselect but an APT-based frontend: APT has its own system to keep track of available packages.

       -A, --record-avail package-file...
           Update dpkg and dselect's idea of which packages are available with information from the package package-file. If
           --recursive or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to a directory instead.

           Now obsolete and a no-op as dpkg will automatically forget uninstalled unavailable packages (since dpkg 1.15.4), but
           only those that do not contain user information such as package selections.

           Erase the existing information about what packages are available.

       --get-selections [package-name-pattern...]
           Get list of package selections, and write it to stdout. Without a pattern, non-installed packages (i.e. those which have
           been previously purged) will not be shown.

           Set package selections using file read from stdin. This file should be in the format “package state”, where state is one
           of install, hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines beginning with ‘#’ are also permitted.

           The available file needs to be up-to-date for this command to be useful, otherwise unknown packages will be ignored with
           a warning. See the --update-avail and --merge-avail commands for more information.

           Set the requested state of every non-essential package to deinstall (since dpkg 1.13.18).  This is intended to be used
           immediately before --set-selections, to deinstall any packages not in list given to --set-selections.

           Searches for packages selected for installation, but which for some reason still haven't been installed.

           Note: This command makes use of both the available file and the package selections.

           Print a single package which is the target of one or more relevant pre-dependencies and has itself no unsatisfied pre-

           If such a package is present, output it as a Packages file entry, which can be massaged as appropriate.

           Note: This command makes use of both the available file and the package selections.

           Returns 0 when a package is printed, 1 when no suitable package is available and 2 on error.

       --add-architecture architecture
           Add architecture to the list of architectures for which packages can be installed without using --force-architecture
           (since dpkg 1.16.2).  The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of --print-architecture) is always part of
           that list.

       --remove-architecture architecture
           Remove architecture from the list of architectures for which packages can be installed without using
           --force-architecture (since dpkg 1.16.2). If the architecture is currently in use in the database then the operation
           will be refused, except if --force-architecture is specified. The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of
           --print-architecture) can never be removed from that list.

           Print architecture of packages dpkg installs (for example, “i386”).

           Print a newline-separated list of the extra architectures dpkg is configured to allow packages to be installed for
           (since dpkg 1.16.2).

           Give help about the --assert-feature options (since dpkg 1.21.0).

           Asserts that dpkg supports the requested feature.  Returns 0 if the feature is fully supported, 1 if the feature is
           known but dpkg cannot provide support for it yet, and 2 if the feature is unknown.  The current list of assertable
           features is:

               Supports the Pre-Depends field (since dpkg 1.1.0).

               Supports epochs in version strings (since dpkg

               Supports long filenames in deb(5) archives (since dpkg

               Supports multiple Conflicts and Replaces (since dpkg

               Supports multi-arch fields and semantics (since dpkg 1.16.2).

               Supports versioned Provides (since dpkg 1.17.11).

               Supports the Protected field (since dpkg 1.20.1).

       --validate-thing string
           Validate that the thing string has a correct syntax (since dpkg 1.18.16).  Returns 0 if the string is valid, 1 if the
           string is invalid but might be accepted in lax contexts, and 2 if the string is invalid.  The current list of
           validatable things is:

               Validates the given package name (since dpkg 1.18.16).

               Validates the given trigger name (since dpkg 1.18.16).

               Validates the given architecture name (since dpkg 1.18.16).

               Validates the given version (since dpkg 1.18.16).

       --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
           Compare version numbers, where op is a binary operator. dpkg returns true (0) if the specified condition is satisfied,
           and false (1) otherwise. There are two groups of operators, which differ in how they treat an empty ver1 or ver2. These
           treat an empty version as earlier than any version: lt le eq ne ge gt. These treat an empty version as later than any
           version: lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl. These are provided only for compatibility with control file syntax: < << <= = >= >> >.
           The < and > operators are obsolete and should not be used, due to confusing semantics. To illustrate: 0.1 < 0.1
           evaluates to true.

       -?, --help
           Display a brief help message.

           Give help about the --force-thing options.

       -Dh, --debug=help
           Give help about debugging options.

           Display dpkg version information.

           When used with --robot, the output will be the program version number in a dotted numerical format, with no newline.

       dpkg-deb actions
           See dpkg-deb(1) for more information about the following actions, and other actions and options not exposed by the dpkg

           -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
               Build a deb package.

           -c, --contents archive
               List contents of a deb package.

           -e, --control archive [directory]
               Extract control-information from a package.

           -x, --extract archive directory
               Extract the files contained by package.

           -X, --vextract archive directory
               Extract and display the filenames contained by a package.

           -f, --field  archive [control-field...]
               Display control field(s) of a package.

           --ctrl-tarfile archive
               Output the control tar-file contained in a Debian package.

           --fsys-tarfile archive
               Output the filesystem tar-file contained by a Debian package.

           -I, --info archive [control-file...]
               Show information about a package.

       dpkg-query actions
           See dpkg-query(1) for more information about the following actions, and other actions and options not exposed by the
           dpkg front-end.

           -l, --list package-name-pattern...
               List packages matching given pattern.

           -s, --status package-name...
               Report status of specified package.

           -L, --listfiles package-name...
               List files installed to your system from package-name.

           -S, --search filename-search-pattern...
               Search for a filename from installed packages.

           -p, --print-avail package-name...
               Display details about package-name, as found in /var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends should use apt
               show package-name instead.

       All options can be specified both on the command line and in the dpkg configuration file /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or fragment
       files (with names matching this shell pattern '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*') on the configuration directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/. Each
       line in the configuration file is either an option (exactly the same as the command line option but without leading hyphens)
       or a comment (if it starts with a ‘#’).

           Change after how many errors dpkg will abort. The default is 50.

       -B, --auto-deconfigure
           When a package is removed, there is a possibility that another installed package depended on the removed package.
           Specifying this option will cause automatic deconfiguration of the package which depended on the removed package.

       -Doctal, --debug=octal
           Switch debugging on. octal is formed by bitwise-ORing desired values together from the list below (note that these
           values may change in future releases). -Dh or --debug=help display these debugging values.

               Number   Description
                    1   Generally helpful progress information
                    2   Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
                   10   Output for each file processed
                  100   Lots of output for each file processed
                   20   Output for each configuration file
                  200   Lots of output for each configuration file
                   40   Dependencies and conflicts
                  400   Lots of dependencies/conflicts output
                10000   Trigger activation and processing
                20000   Lots of output regarding triggers
                40000   Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
                 1000   Lots of drivel about for example the dpkg/info dir
                 2000   Insane amounts of drivel

       --no-force-things, --refuse-things
           Force or refuse (no-force and refuse mean the same thing) to do some things. things is a comma separated list of things
           specified below. --force-help displays a message describing them.  Things marked with (*) are forced by default.

           Warning: These options are mostly intended to be used by experts only. Using them without fully understanding their
           effects may break your whole system.

           all: Turns on (or off) all force options.

           downgrade(*): Install a package, even if newer version of it is already installed.

           Warning: At present dpkg does not do any dependency checking on downgrades and therefore will not warn you if the
           downgrade breaks the dependency of some other package. This can have serious side effects, downgrading essential system
           components can even make your whole system unusable. Use with care.

           configure-any: Configure also any unpacked but unconfigured packages on which the current package depends.

           hold: Allow automatic installs, upgrades or removals of packages even when marked to be on “hold”.  Note: When these
           actions are requested explicitly, the “hold” package selection state always gets ignored.

           remove-reinstreq: Remove a package, even if it's broken and marked to require reinstallation. This may, for example,
           cause parts of the package to remain on the system, which will then be forgotten by dpkg.

           remove-protected: Remove, even if the package is considered protected (since dpkg 1.20.1).  Protected packages contain
           mostly important system boot infrastructure or are used for custom system-local meta-packages.  Removing them might
           cause the whole system to be unable to boot or lose required functionality to operate, so use with caution.

           remove-essential: Remove, even if the package is considered essential.  Essential packages contain mostly very basic
           Unix commands, required for the packaging system, for the operation of the system in general or during boot (although
           the latter should be converted to protected packages instead).  Removing them might cause the whole system to stop
           working, so use with caution.

           depends: Turn all dependency problems into warnings.  This affects the Pre-Depends and Depends fields.

           depends-version: Don't care about versions when checking dependencies.  This affects the Pre-Depends and Depends fields.

           breaks: Install, even if this would break another package (since dpkg 1.14.6).  This affects the Breaks field.

           conflicts: Install, even if it conflicts with another package. This is dangerous, for it will usually cause overwriting
           of some files.  This affects the Conflicts field.

           confmiss: Always install the missing conffile without prompting. This is dangerous, since it means not preserving a
           change (removing) made to the file.

           confnew: If a conffile has been modified and the version in the package did change, always install the new version
           without prompting, unless the --force-confdef is also specified, in which case the default action is preferred.

           confold: If a conffile has been modified and the version in the package did change, always keep the old version without
           prompting, unless the --force-confdef is also specified, in which case the default action is preferred.

           confdef: If a conffile has been modified and the version in the package did change, always choose the default action
           without prompting. If there is no default action it will stop to ask the user unless --force-confnew or --force-confold
           is also been given, in which case it will use that to decide the final action.

           confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer to replace it with the version in the package, even if the version
           in the package did not change (since dpkg 1.15.8).  If any of --force-confnew, --force-confold, or --force-confdef is
           also given, it will be used to decide the final action.

           overwrite: Overwrite one package's file with another's file.

           overwrite-dir: Overwrite one package's directory with another's file.

           overwrite-diverted: Overwrite a diverted file with an undiverted version.

           statoverride-add: Overwrite an existing stat override when adding it (since dpkg 1.19.5).

           statoverride-remove: Ignore a missing stat override when removing it (since dpkg 1.19.5).

           security-mac(*): Use platform-specific Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) based security when installing files into the
           filesystem (since dpkg 1.19.5).  On Linux systems the implementation uses SELinux.

           unsafe-io: Do not perform safe I/O operations when unpacking (since dpkg  Currently this implies not
           performing file system syncs before file renames, which is known to cause substantial performance degradation on some
           file systems, unfortunately the ones that require the safe I/O on the first place due to their unreliable behaviour
           causing zero-length files on abrupt system crashes.

           Note: For ext4, the main offender, consider using instead the mount option nodelalloc, which will fix both the
           performance degradation and the data safety issues, the latter by making the file system not produce zero-length files
           on abrupt system crashes with any software not doing syncs before atomic renames.

           Warning: Using this option might improve performance at the cost of losing data, use with care.

           script-chrootless: Run maintainer scripts without chroot(2)ing into instdir even if the package does not support this
           mode of operation (since dpkg 1.18.5).

           Warning: This can destroy your host system, use with extreme care.

           architecture: Process even packages with wrong or no architecture.

           bad-version: Process even packages with wrong versions (since dpkg 1.16.1).

           bad-path: PATH is missing important programs, so problems are likely.

           not-root: Try to (de)install things even when not root.

           bad-verify: Install a package even if it fails authenticity check.

           Ignore dependency-checking for specified packages (actually, checking is performed, but only warnings about conflicts
           are given, nothing else).  This affects the Pre-Depends, Depends and Breaks fields.

       --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
           Do everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write any changes. This is used to see what would happen with the
           specified action, without actually modifying anything.

           Be sure to give --no-act before the action-parameter, or you might end up with undesirable results. (e.g. dpkg --purge
           foo --no-act will first purge package “foo” and then try to purge package ”--no-act”, even though you probably expected
           it to actually do nothing).

       -R, --recursive
           Recursively handle all regular files matching pattern *.deb found at specified directories and all of its
           subdirectories. This can be used with -i, -A, --install, --unpack and --record-avail actions.

       -G  Don't install a package if a newer version of the same package is already installed. This is an alias of

           Set the administrative directory to directory.  This directory contains many files that give information about status of
           installed or uninstalled packages, etc.  Defaults to «/var/lib/dpkg» if DPKG_ADMINDIR has not been set.

           Set the installation directory, which refers to the directory where packages are to be installed. instdir is also the
           directory passed to chroot(2) before running package's installation scripts, which means that the scripts see instdir as
           a root directory.  Defaults to «/».

           Set the root directory to directory, which sets the installation directory to «dir» and the administrative directory to

       -O, --selected-only
           Only process the packages that are selected for installation. The actual marking is done with dselect or by dpkg, when
           it handles packages. For example, when a package is removed, it will be marked selected for deinstallation.

       -E, --skip-same-version
           Don't install the package if the same version and architecture of the package is already installed.

           Since dpkg 1.21.10, the architecture is also taken into account, which makes it possible to cross-grade packages or
           install additional co-installable instances with the same version, but different architecture.

           Set an invoke hook command to be run via “sh -c” before or after the dpkg run for the unpack, configure, install,
           triggers-only, remove, purge, add-architecture and remove-architecture dpkg actions (since dpkg 1.15.4; add-architecture
           and remove-architecture actions since dpkg 1.17.19). This option can be specified multiple times. The order the options
           are specified is preserved, with the ones from the configuration files taking precedence.  The environment variable
           DPKG_HOOK_ACTION is set for the hooks to the current dpkg action.

           Note: Front-ends might call dpkg several times per invocation, which might run the hooks more times than expected.

           Set glob-pattern as a path filter, either by excluding or re-including previously excluded paths matching the specified
           patterns during install (since dpkg 1.15.8).

           Warning: Take into account that depending on the excluded paths you might completely break your system, use with

           The glob patterns use the same wildcards used in the shell, were ‘*’ matches any sequence of characters, including the
           empty string and also ‘/’.  For example, «/usr/*/READ*» matches «/usr/share/doc/package/README».  As usual, ‘?’ matches
           any single character (again, including ‘/’).  And ‘[’ starts a character class, which can contain a list of characters,
           ranges and complementations. See glob(7) for detailed information about globbing.  Note: The current implementation
           might re-include more directories and symlinks than needed, in particular when there is a more specific re-inclusion, to
           be on the safe side and avoid possible unpack failures; future work might fix this.

           This can be used to remove all paths except some particular ones; a typical case is:


           to remove all documentation files except the copyright files.

           These two options can be specified multiple times, and interleaved with each other. Both are processed in the given
           order, with the last rule that matches a file name making the decision.

           The filters are applied when unpacking the binary packages, and as such only have knowledge of the type of object
           currently being filtered (e.g. a normal file or a directory) and have not visibility of what objects will come next.
           Because these filters have side effects (in contrast to find(1) filters), excluding an exact pathname that happens to be
           a directory object like /usr/share/doc will not have the desired result, and only that pathname will be excluded (which
           could be automatically reincluded if the code sees the need).  Any subsequent files contained within that directory will
           fail to unpack.

           Hint: make sure the globs are not expanded by your shell.

       --verify-format format-name
           Sets the output format for the --verify command (since dpkg 1.17.2).

           The only currently supported output format is rpm, which consists of a line for every path that failed any check.  These
           lines have the following format:

            missing   [c] pathname [(error-message)]
            ??5?????? [c] pathname

           The first 9 characters are used to report the checks result, either a literal missing when the file is not present or
           its metadata cannot be fetched, or one of the following special characters that report the result for each check:

           ‘?’ Implies the check could not be done (lack of support, file permissions, etc).

           ‘.’ Implies the check passed.

               Implies a specific check failed.  The following positions and alphanumeric characters are currently supported:

               1 ‘?’
                   These checks are currently not supported, will always be ‘?’.

               2 ‘M’
                   The file mode check failed (since dpkg 1.21.0).  Because pathname metadata is currently not tracked, this check
                   can only be partially emulated via a very simple heuristic for pathnames that have a known digest, which implies
                   they should be regular files, where the check will fail if the pathname is not a regular file on the filesystem.
                   This check will currently never succeed as it does not have enough information available.

               3 ‘5’
                   The digest check failed, which means the file contents have changed.

               4-9 ‘?’
                   These checks are currently not supported, will always be ‘?’.

           The line is followed by a space and an attribute character.  The following attribute character is supported:

           ‘c’ The pathname is a conffile.

           Finally followed by another space and the pathname.

           In case the entry was of the missing type, and the file was not actually present on the filesystem, then the line is
           followed by a space and the error message enclosed within parenthesis.

       --status-fd n
           Send machine-readable package status and progress information to file descriptor n. This option can be specified
           multiple times. The information is generally one record per line, in one of the following forms:

           status: package: status
               Package status changed; status is as in the status file.

           status: package : error : extended-error-message
               An error occurred. Any possible newlines in extended-error-message will be converted to spaces before output.

           status: file : conffile-prompt : 'real-old' 'real-new' useredited distedited
               User is being asked a conffile question.

           processing: stage: package
               Sent just before a processing stage starts. stage is one of upgrade, install (both sent before unpacking),
               configure, trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.

           Send machine-readable package status and progress information to the shell command's standard input, to be run via “sh
           -c” (since dpkg 1.16.0).  This option can be specified multiple times.  The output format used is the same as in

           Log status change updates and actions to filename, instead of the default /var/log/dpkg.log. If this option is given
           multiple times, the last filename is used. Log messages are of the form:

           YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS startup type command
               For each dpkg invocation where type is archives (with a command of unpack or install) or packages (with a command of
               configure, triggers-only, remove or purge).

           YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS status state pkg installed-version
               For status change updates.

           YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS action pkg installed-version available-version
               For actions where action is one of install, upgrade, configure, trigproc, disappear, remove or purge.

           YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS conffile filename decision
               For conffile changes where decision is either install or keep.

           Use a machine-readable output format. This provides an interface for programs that need to parse the output of some of
           the commands that do not otherwise emit a machine-readable output format. No localization will be used, and the output
           will be modified to make it easier to parse.

           The only currently supported command is --version.

           Disables the use of any pager when showing information (since dpkg 1.19.2).

           Do not try to verify package signatures.

           Do not run any triggers in this run (since dpkg 1.14.17), but activations will still be recorded.  If used with
           --configure package or --triggers-only package then the named package postinst will still be run even if only a triggers
           run is needed. Use of this option may leave packages in the improper triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This
           can be fixed later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.

           Cancels a previous --no-triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).

       0   The requested action was successfully performed.  Or a check or assertion command returned true.

       1   A check or assertion command returned false.

       2   Fatal or unrecoverable error due to invalid command-line usage, or interactions with the system, such as accesses to the
           database, memory allocations, etc.

   External environment
           This variable is expected to be defined in the environment and point to the system paths where several required programs
           are to be found. If it's not set or the programs are not found, dpkg will abort.

           If set, dpkg will use it as the directory from which to read the user specific configuration file.

           If set, dpkg will use it as the directory in which to create temporary files and directories.

           The program dpkg will execute when starting a new interactive shell, or when spawning a command via a shell.

           The program dpkg will execute when running a pager, which will be executed with «$SHELL -c», for example when displaying
           the conffile differences.  If SHELL is not set, «sh» will be used instead.  The DPKG_PAGER overrides the PAGER
           environment variable (since dpkg 1.19.2).

           Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently accepted values are: auto (default), always and never.

           Sets the debug mask (since dpkg 1.21.10) from an octal value.  The currently accepted flags are described in the --debug

           Sets the force flags (since dpkg 1.19.5).  When this variable is present, no built-in force defaults will be applied.
           If the variable is present but empty, all force flags will be disabled.

           If set and the --admindir or --root options have not been specified, it will be used as the dpkg administrative
           directory (since dpkg 1.20.0).

           Set by a package manager frontend to notify dpkg that it should not acquire the frontend lock (since dpkg 1.19.1).

   Internal environment
           Defined by dpkg to “-FRSXMQ”, if not already set, when spawning a pager (since dpkg 1.19.2).  To change the default
           behavior, this variable can be preset to some other value including an empty string, or the PAGER or DPKG_PAGER
           variables can be set to disable specific options with «-+», for example DPKG_PAGER="less -+F".

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to indicate which installation to act on (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The
           value is intended to be prepended to any path maintainer scripts operate on.  During normal operation, this variable is
           empty.  When installing packages into a different instdir, dpkg normally invokes maintainer scripts using chroot(2) and
           leaves this variable empty, but if --force-script-chrootless is specified then the chroot(2) call is skipped and instdir
           is non-empty.

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to indicate the dpkg administrative directory to use (since dpkg
           1.16.0).  This variable is always set to the current --admindir value.

           Defined by dpkg on the subprocesses environment to all the currently enabled force option names separated by commas
           (since dpkg 1.19.5).

           Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Current valid
           value: conffile-prompt.

           Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Contains the
           path to the old conffile.

           Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Contains the
           path to the new conffile.

           Defined by dpkg on the shell spawned when executing a hook action (since dpkg 1.15.4).  Contains the current dpkg

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the version of the currently running dpkg instance (since dpkg

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the (non-arch-qualified) package name being handled (since dpkg

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the package reference count, i.e. the number of package
           instances with a state greater than not-installed (since dpkg 1.17.2).

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the architecture the package got built for (since dpkg 1.15.4).

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the name of the script running, one of preinst, postinst, prerm
           or postrm (since dpkg 1.15.7).

           Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to a value (‘0’ or ‘1’) noting whether debugging has been requested
           (with the --debug option) for the maintainer scripts (since dpkg 1.18.4).

           Configuration fragment files (since dpkg 1.15.4).

           Configuration file with default options.

           Default log file (see /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg and option --log).

       The other files listed below are in their default directories, see option --admindir to see how to change locations of these

           List of available packages.

           Statuses of available packages. This file contains information about whether a package is marked for removing or not,
           whether it is installed or not, etc. See section INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES for more info.

           The status file is backed up daily in /var/backups. It can be useful if it's lost or corrupted due to filesystems

       The format and contents of a binary package are described in deb(5).

       --no-act usually gives less information than might be helpful.

       To list installed packages related to the editor vi(1) (note that dpkg-query does not load the available file anymore by
       default, and the dpkg-query --load-avail option should be used instead for that):

        dpkg -l '*vi*'

       To see the entries in /var/lib/dpkg/available of two packages:

        dpkg --print-avail elvis vim | less

       To search the listing of packages yourself:

        less /var/lib/dpkg/available

       To remove an installed elvis package:

        dpkg -r elvis

       To install a package, you first need to find it in an archive or CDROM. The available file shows that the vim package is in
       section editors:

        cd /media/cdrom/pool/main/v/vim
        dpkg -i vim_4.5-3.deb

       To make a local copy of the package selection states:

        dpkg --get-selections> myselections

       You might transfer this file to another computer, and after having updated the available file there with your package
       manager frontend of choice (see <https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Dpkg/FAQ#set-selections> for more details), for example:

        apt-cache dumpavail | dpkg --merge-avail

       or with dpkg 1.17.6 and earlier:

        apt-cache dumpavail> "$avail"
        dpkg --merge-avail "$avail"
        rm "$avail"

       you can install it with:

        dpkg --clear-selections
        dpkg --set-selections <myselections

       Note that this will not actually install or remove anything, but just set the selection state on the requested packages. You
       will need some other application to actually download and install the requested packages. For example, run apt-get dselect-

       Ordinarily, you will find that dselect(1) provides a more convenient way to modify the package selection states.

       Additional functionality can be gained by installing any of the following packages: apt, aptitude and debsums.

       aptitude(8), apt(8), dselect(1), dpkg-deb(1), dpkg-query(1), deb(5), deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and dpkg-reconfigure(8).

       See /usr/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS for the list of people who have contributed to dpkg.

1.21.21                                                      2023-03-02                                                     dpkg(1)