CHOWN(1)                                                   User Commands                                                   CHOWN(1)

       chown - change file owner and group

       chown [OPTION]... [OWNER][:[GROUP]] FILE...
       chown [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

       This  manual page documents the GNU version of chown.  chown changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file.  If
       only an owner (a user name or numeric user ID) is given, that user is made the owner of each  given  file,  and  the  files'
       group  is  not  changed.  If the owner is followed by a colon and a group name (or numeric group ID), with no spaces between
       them, the group ownership of the files is changed as well.  If a colon but no group name follows the user name, that user is
       made  the  owner  of the files and the group of the files is changed to that user's login group.  If the colon and group are
       given, but the owner is omitted, only the group of the files is changed; in this case, chown performs the same  function  as
       chgrp.  If only a colon is given, or if the entire operand is empty, neither the owner nor the group is changed.

       Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.  With --reference, change the owner and group of each FILE
       to those of RFILE.

       -c, --changes
              like verbose but report only when a change is made

       -f, --silent, --quiet
              suppress most error messages

       -v, --verbose
              output a diagnostic for every file processed

              affect the referent of each symbolic link (this is the default), rather than the symbolic link itself

       -h, --no-dereference
              affect symbolic links instead of any referenced file (useful only on systems that can change the ownership of a  sym‐

              change the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here.  Either
              may be omitted, in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute

              do not treat '/' specially (the default)

              fail to operate recursively on '/'

              use RFILE's owner and group rather than specifying OWNER:GROUP values

       -R, --recursive
              operate on files and directories recursively

       The following options modify how a hierarchy is traversed when the -R option is also specified.  If more than one is  speci‐
       fied, only the final one takes effect.

       -H     if a command line argument is a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it

       -L     traverse every symbolic link to a directory encountered

       -P     do not traverse any symbolic links (default)

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       Owner  is  unchanged  if missing.  Group is unchanged if missing, but changed to login group if implied by a ':' following a
       symbolic OWNER.  OWNER and GROUP may be numeric as well as symbolic.

       chown root /u
              Change the owner of /u to "root".

       chown root:staff /u
              Likewise, but also change its group to "staff".

       chown -hR root /u
              Change the owner of /u and subfiles to "root".

       Written by David MacKenzie and Jim Meyering.

       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report any translation bugs to <>

       Copyright © 2022 Free  Software  Foundation,  Inc.   License  GPLv3+:  GNU  GPL  version  3  or  later  <‐
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


       Full documentation <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) chown invocation'

GNU coreutils 9.1                                           January 2023                                                   CHOWN(1)